Last number

 
№10  2018

1.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-3-9
УДК 621.785.01
Voznesenskaya N.M., Tonysheva О.А., Leonov A.V., Dulnev K.V.
HYDROGEN INFLUENCE ON HIGH-STRENGTH CORROSION-RESISTANT STEEL VNS65-Sh PROPERTIES AND WAYS OF ELIMINATION OF HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT

High strength corrosion-resistant steel VNS65-Sh is the steel of transitional class with tensile strength more than 1670 MPa.

This steel is used for manufacturing of the high-loaded power details and nodes for aviation engineering (working temperature range from-70 to +200°С). Steel can be used in all-climatic conditions.

The parts from the large forging of VNS65-Sh steel were observed in this article. The forgings of VNS65-Sh used for manufacturing the responsible airframe details. The cutting samples were processed by different kind of heat treatment.

The results of diffusion mobility hydrogen (DMH) influence on steel plasticity (generally, reduction of area (ψ %)) characteristics, microstructure and surface condition after tension tests are shown in this article.

The negative influence of surface cold working on removal of DMH during heat treatment is shown. The plastic strain creating on surface the raised level of defects, complicates hydrogen movement in metal and its removing from samples.

The samples fracture of VNS65-Sh steel with low values of plasticity observe the brittle crystal sites («flakes at stretching»). The cracks on surface and cross section of samples (parallel of the sample fracture) are shown.

The different modes of heat treatment providing the minimum content of DMH in samples and recovery of steel plasticity are investigated. 

Positive influence of heat treatment in vacuum furnace on recovery of steel plasticity is shown. The best results of reduction of area values and the low content of DMH
(0,10–0,13 cm3/100g of Me) are received after heat treatment reducing the hydrogen and quen

Read in Russian

2.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-10-16
УДК 669.018.29
Ospennikova O.G., Lukin V.I., Afanasev-Khodykin A.N., I.A. Galushka
THE MANUFACTURE OF THE «BLISK» ROTOR DESIGN MADE FROM BIMETALLIC COMBINATION OF MATERIALS (review)

The most loaded place of a gas turbine is a joint between blades and disk that works in adverse conditions. A traditional type of mechanical connection characterized in a place of contact with nonuniform loadings resulting from a high temperature deformation between a disk and blades. In an alternative design it replaced on an unreleasable connection that can be manufactured in a various ways. Moreover, the most perspective type of connection is bimetallic type of blisk which allows to use a different alloys for the disk (deformable super alloys) and blades (monocrystal super alloys). These methods are: a high temperature isostatic pressing of a powder disk with blades, a linear friction welding, a diffusion welding and a diffusion brazing. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, however a realization of diffusion brazing will demand minimum changes in current technological process. Grooves are cutting in a disk to provide a precise positioning for blades when the method of diffusion brazing is used. Also, the method of diffusion brazing allows to repair a blades after the long gas turbine engine operation time.

Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials and JSC “UEC – Klimov” developed the new place of contact design, new brazing alloy, technology of brazing EP975 and VKNA-25 nickel based super alloys, manufactured and tested the full-size demonstrator of blisk.

 

Read in Russian

3.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-17-26
УДК 669.715
Antipov V.V., Serebrennikova N.Yu., Nefedova Yu.N., Kozlova O.Yu., Panteleev M.D., Osipov N.N., Klychеv A.V.
MANUFACTURING CAPABILITY OF Al–Li 1441 ALLOY DETAILS

Technological characteristics of Al-Li 1441 alloy sheet details manufacturing by means of instrumental forming are described. Processes of forming details in annealed, quenched, naturally aged condition with a following T1 heat treatment are shown. Al–Li 1441T1 alloy details have a high modulus, low density, good strength properties, have high crack resistance and low-cycle fatigue.

         A possibility of contact welding in 1441 alloy sheet details manufacture is shown. Microstructure of welded 1,0 mm thin sheet joint is shown. Shear tests shown that shear strength is about 340–370 MPa.

Phase content and structure of samples made of 1441T1 details are shown for comparison of material structure after deformation and T1 heat treatment. Sheets microstructure is mostly recrystallized, grain size is about 15-25μm. Main hardening phases of the 1441 alloy are δ'-phase (Al3Li) and S'-phases (Al2CuMg).

Method of autoclave molding of sheet or plate and hybrid material of 1441 details combined with T1 heat treatment is shown. In this work experimental structures of hybrid material with 1441 sheets and polymeric layers in respect to fuselage and wing panels are shown.

Usage of semiproducts of Al-Li 1441 alloy and alumopolymeric materials of GLARE class for aviation construction details manufacture instead of D16 and 1163 alloys can lower construction weight because of low density, high specific tenacity and stiffness.

 

Read in Russian

4.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-27-36
УДК 669.018.292:669.715
Nechaykina T.A., Blinovа N.E., Ivanov A.L., Kozlova O.Yu., Kozhekin A.E.
RESEARCH OF THE EFFECT OF HOMOGENIZATION AND QUENCH HARDENING MODES ON THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RETAIL RINGS FROM ALLOY В95o.ch.-T2

The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment parameters (homogenization and hardening) on the structure and properties of the roll rings (R≤1500 mm) made of high-strength alloy V95ochT2 providing the required level of properties (sв≥470 МPа, s0,2≥ 380 МPа, δ≥6%).

After the manufacturing parameters influence investigations on the structure and properties of the roll rings made of high-strength alloy V95ochT2:

• a homogenization mode was stated;

• hardening modes for rolled rings were specified;

• quenching in both cold and hot water provides the required properties level .

The mechanical properties of the roll rings after all heat treatment modes are equal toV95ochT2 alloy plates (sв≥470 МPа, s0,2≥380 МPа, δ≥6%), which the frames are currently made of, also the mechanical properties are equal to the strength characteristics of similar semi products made of foreign counterpart 7475 T7351 alloy (USA) (80 mm thick plates: sв≥455 MPa, s0,2≥370 MPa, δ≥10%). At the same time, all modes of manufacturingand heat treatment provide a more uniform dispersion of the properties in the cross section of the roll rings in comparison to plates, where the uneven structure adversely affects the properties. Also, the manufacture of frames of the fuselage from rolled rings will increase the utilization rate of the material from 10 to 50% and will reduce the labor intensity and energy intensity of manufacturing up to 15% receiving the frames in the metallurgical industry.

The mode with homogenization at the temperature of 450–470°C within 24 hours, with a 150 minutes quench soak t

Read in Russian

5.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-37-44
УДК 621.74.045
Ospennikova O.G., Pikulina L.V., Orlova V.Yu.
MODEL COMPOSITIONS ON THE BASIS OF SYNTHETIC MATERIALS. PECULIARITY OF PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

The production of cast parts with high geometrical accuracy by the method of casting using melted models mainly depends on the quality of model compositions and their components, since the casting completely repeats the configuration of the models. The currently used model compositions are based on synthetic polymeric materials, esters and synthetic resins. On the basis of the studies performed, the requirements for model compositions were noted to ensure consistency in size, configuration and quality of parts. The developed technology of manufacturing model compositions to ensure the stability of physico-mechanical and technological characteristics that provide the necessary level of properties of model compositions. The compulsory living room entrance control methods, the physicomechanical characteristics of model compositions and materials for their manufacture, and other equally informative ways of quality assessment are considered. Comparative physicomechanical properties of imported and domestic brands of model compositions are given. Presents methods for testing the technological functions of manufacturing parts of various nomenclature in terms of current personality (PTR) and viscosity of model compositions. Graphically, the representation of the PTR and the viscosity of different brands of model compositions on the temperature, indicated by the region of the optimal conditions of pressing. Model compositions have been developed that differ not only in more stable physicomechanical and technological characteristics, but also in the absence of a specific smell, a granulated type instead of plates, in a variety of colors. The method of regeneration of the model composition for reuse in production is presented. The economic benefit and increase in profitability of the foundry industry as a whole due to the development of the method of regeneration of model compositions is considered.

 

Read in Russian

6.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-45-52
УДК 629.3.023.26
Sentiourin E.G., Mekalina I.V., Aizatulina M.K., Orlova I.V.
POLISHING AND GRINDING – EFFECTIVE METHODS TO IMPROVE THE «SILVER RESISTANCE» AND OPTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PLEXIGLAS IN THE MANUFACTURE AND EXTENSION OF AVIATION GLAZING IN OPERATION (review)

From the very first years of creation of VIAM in its work attention was paid to solving problems of materials and technologies of aviation glazing. The main ones were Plexiglas based on acrylic polymers.

To solve the problem of removing defects on the surface of plexiglass in the details of aviation glazing in the FSUE "VIAM" polishing and grinding pastes and technologies for their application have been developed. The polishing ability of VIAM-3 paste is determined by polishing glasses of ^0-120, A0-120A, and SO- 120A grades. Polishing paste eliminates defects less than 0.1 mm deep. To eliminate more significant defects, polishing requires materials and technologies for polishing organic glass.

Designed and produced by FSUE "VIAM" "Grinding paste for organic glass" is used to remove defects with a depth >0.1 mm. After checking the grinding ability of the paste, the surface of the organic glass should be smooth, free of defects and scratches. The surface is considered prepared for polishing with paste "VIAM-3".

A positive result of the influence of grinding and polishing was obtained when testing curvilinear glass details from organic glass AO-120 with surface operational defects - scratches and "silver". After surface treatment of samples, the translucency in the samples was 92.0%, "silver resistance"> 3 min. After an open exhibition for 12 months in Moscow and Gelendzhik, the indicators of translucence and "silver resistance" are preserved.

At present, in our country, the highest quality oriented glasses AO-120 and A0-120A, which provide practically promising characteristics of aircraft glazing in the manufacture and operation, are manufactured by ООО Roshibus in accordance with the license agreement with VIAM. High quality of manufactured plexiglass is associated with the use in th

Read in Russian

7.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-53-61
УДК 66.017
Pripisnov Ya.A., Grishina O.I.
MODERN METHODS OF MECHANICAL PROCESSING OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS (review)

The article presents a review of foreign and domestic methods of mechanical processing of composite materials. The article consists of four parts.

The introduction refers to the development of composite materials and the need to introduce new methods of their processing. As part of the implementation of the complex scientific problem №12 «Metal matrix and polymatric composite materials» («Strategic directions of development of materials and technologies of their processing for the period up to 2030»), a review of scientific and technical literature in the field of research aimed at increasing the efficiency of mechanical processing of composite materials.

The paper gives an overview of the currently basic methods of machining of composite materials, their machinability is displayed, the advantages and disadvantages of various processing methods are indicated. The analysis of blade machining, including the features of wear and coating variations of the cutting tool. Also two approaches of ultrasonic processing are revealed, possibilities of laser processing are displayed and the essence of water jet cutting of materials is explained. In conclusion, the conclusion and prospects of mechanical processing of composite materials.

At the beginning of the article the analysis of blade machining, which includes features of wear and variations of the coating of the cutting tool, their machinability is displayed, the advantages and disadvantages of various methods of machining are indicated.

In the main part of the article the principles of two approaches of ultrasonic processing of composites are briefly stated, possibilities of laser processing are displayed and the essence of waterjet cutting of materials is explained.

In conclusion, the

Read in Russian

8.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-62-73
УДК 629.7.023
Aleksandrov D.A., Muboyadzhyan S.A., P.L. Juravleva, Gorlov D.S.
INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF SURFACE PREPARATION AND ION-ASSISTED DEPOSITION ON THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF EROSION-RESISTANT ION-PLASMA COATING

In this article, we investigated the influence of methods for preparing the sample surface before coating on the resistance to erosive wear of an ion-plasma coating of zirconium nitride. The effect on the structure of the surface layer and erosion resistance of the compositions of alloy-coating assisted deposition, as well as the direction of rotation of the cathode spots of the vacuum arc along the annular trajectory on the surface of the cylindrical cathode is shown compared to the direction of rotation of the processed products on the planetary drive of the MAP-3 for ion-plasma coatings. The phase composition of the coatings were studied, the lattice periods and the size of coherent scattering regions, the magnitude of residual stresses were determined, and the erosion-wear resistance of alloy-coating compositions was tested. The spread of compressive residual stresses obtained on samples with ZrN coating in this work was from 910 to 1470 MPa, which is not high for a monolayer nitride coating. It is shown that with assisted deposition, zirconium nitride is formed predominantly with texture <311> and the substrate (substrate texture) does not have an orienting effect on the formation of the texture of the coatings. It is shown that the direction of rotation of the cathode spots in a clockwise direction, which coincides with the direction of rotation of the drive with the parts, is most desirable for obtaining high results of erosion resistance of the coating. This effect of the direction of rotation of the cathode spots of the vacuum arc relative to the planetary drive with the details can be explained by different angles of incidence of the evaporating material ions onto the substrate surface. The positive effect of vibrating the surface of the sample on the ZrN coating is established, which is an effective preparation of the surface of the GTE compressor blades before applying an erosion-resistant coating, since it does not

Read in Russian

9.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-74-82
УДК 620.1:678
Gladkikh A.V., Kurs I.S., Kurs M.G.
ANALYSIS OF THE DATA OF FULL-SCALE CLIMATIC TESTS COMBINED WITH THE APPLICATION OF OPERATIONAL FACTORS OF NONMETALLIC MATERIALS (review)

Climate testing of materials to determine resistance to corrosion and aging to substantiate the possibility and feasibility of using them in advanced technology products, justifying service life, taking into account areas of operation in different climatic zones, products is one of the leading directions for the development of environmental testing to ensure reliable operation of aircraft products.

At present, the qualification assessment of the persistence of the properties of composite materials is carried out according to the results of individual aging tests in climatic chambers (the lifetime of the material in the structure at operating and maximum operating temperatures), cyclic (fatigue) mechanical tests, climatic factors in natural conditions.

Testing in laboratories provides the information necessary to assess the behavior of materials when exposed to climatic factors. But, as has been shown in numerous domestic and foreign studies, the results obtained under laboratory conditions often have a weak correlation with the results obtained under natural conditions, and can only be of an evaluative nature. At the same time, one of the most important factors that have a fundamental impact on the acceleration of the aging process of PCM is the effect of static and mechanical stresses.

The PCM tests for resistance to the combined effect of mechanical loads and climatic factors are currently not receiving enough attention due to the lack of an appropriate regulatory SD. There are also practically no tests and there is no information on the effect of dynamic mechanical (cyclic) and other operational loads (thermal, corrosive, etc.) on the properties of PCM during aging in natural environments.

In this paper, we consider the effect of the combined effect of mechanical loads and climate impac

Read in Russian

10.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-83-92
УДК 620.179.1:621.792.05
Murashov V.V., Yakovleva S.I.
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING OF THE AIR SCREW BLADE'S FILLER AND PERMANENT CONNECTIONS MADE FROM POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIAL

In work the influence of defects like violation of continuity of the foam filler of the composite blade on spectral characteristics of elastic oscillations of surface of tested object, raised by tap impulses is investigated at control. Also in work the influence of defects in zones of the connection between heating pad and composite blade at spectral characteristics of elastic oscillations of the pad’s surface, raised is investigated at control.

It is shown that at zones of cracks in foam plastic and at zones of violation of connection between heating pad and composite blade the received oscillations’ spectrum that is sign of availability of defect significantly changes and allows revealing defects with high reliability.

The choice of non-destructive testing parameters was important point at working off of control technique. Amplitude, duration and form of the impulses raised by mechanical vibrators, significantly depend on test object. Reduction of elastic modulus of outside layer and mechanical impedance of product (for example, owing to reduction of thickness of product or defect availability in it) increases duration, reduces amplitude and narrows pulse spectrum. For this reason of product before monitoring procedure it is recommended to mark from both sides by means of templates on two zones: on «spar zone» (thickness CFRP from 8 to 12 mm) and on «cover zone» (CFRP thickness from 2 to 3 mm).

The samples of the composite blade technology of control is fulfilled that allows to apply the approach stated in article to non-destructive testing of air screws’ blades by polymer composites at experimental and serial plants of aerospace and other industries which manufacture polymer composites air screws’ blades with the internal foam filler and heating elements.

Read in Russian



11.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-93-106
УДК 624.046.3
Oreshko E.I., Erasov V.S., Lashov O.A., Podzhivotov N.Y., Kachan D.V.
CALCULATION OF TENSION IN A LAYERED MATERIAL

The purpose of this work is development of model which will allow to define tension in a material from layers with the different module of elasticity.  For this purpose in work the final and element program ANSYS Mechanical APDL complex, allowing to carry out different types of the strength analysis of final and element model from composite materials is used.

Physicomechanical tests of a layered sample for loss of stability were carried out and comparisons of the tension of loss of stability of a sample received at experiment with settlement data are carried out.

At calculation for Euler's formula it was supposed that the material is homogeneous. More exact calculation was carried out by FEM at which elastic characteristics both a metal alloy, and a composite material were considered.

At deformation of a layered plate it was supposed that in a material layers with the various module of elasticity are shortened on the same size as the top and bottom planes of both parts coincide (a condition of compatibility of deformations).

At creation of model of a three-layer test piece on loss of stability used the multilayered final elements SHELL181.

At creation of model of layered samples for determination of the maximum tension in layers with the various module of elasticity the volume final elements SOLID185 were used.

The calculations which have been carried out in the final and element program ANSYS complex showed that tension which arise in layered samples at loading do not depend on quantity of layers if the total thickness of materials with the various module of elasticity does not change.

The model for calculation of tension in each layer of a layered plate is offered. The sche

Read in Russian

12.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2018-0-10-107-116
УДК 620.1
Barbotko S.L., Volnyj O.S., Shurkova E.N.
CREATION OF THE PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL DESCRIBING CHANGE OF THE CHARACTERISTIC OF COMBUSTIBILITY (DURATION OF RESIDUAL BURNING) DEPENDING ON THICKNESS OF POLYMERIC MATERIAL

Expanding the application of polymer materials in aviation technology sets the task of improving the fire safety of the materials used. . Since it is possible to use materials of different thickness in various structural elements, it is necessary to understand the regularities of changing the fire hazard characteristics of materials from their thickness. In accordance with the requirements of aviation norms, all samples which will be tested must completely correspond to the characteristics of the material used in the product. But these formal requirements for determining the fire hazard characteristics of materials for all possible thicknesses are not feasible in practice, since the actual use of materials is possible in the ranges from 0.2–0.3 mm (1 monolayer) to 20 mm and more. In this case, the step of changing the thickness can be as much as one thickness of one monolayer, i.e. 0.2–0.3 mm. Thus, the range of all possible thicknesses can be some tens options. The actual carrying out of such a number of fire experiments has a very high labour intensity and material consumption, is completely unjustified from the economic point of view. Therefore, often in the qualification of materials are limited to carrying out tests of 1-3 thicknesses, which are chosen arbitrarily. In this regard, the problem of establishing the regularities of the change in fire hazard characteristics depending on the thickness of the sample and the construction of mathematical models describing these regularities is very relevant.

In this work the analysis of changes in one characteristic of fire hazard – the duration of self-residual combustion – depending on the thickness of the sample is carried out. . It is shown that the regularity of the change in the duration of the remaining combustion from the thickness of the sample has the form of a curve with an extremum (maximum) at some "critical" thickn

Read in Russian