Articles

 


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1.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-3-12
УДК 669.245
Kuzmina N.A., Petrushin N.V., Visik E.M., Eremin N.N., Naprienko S.A.
APPLICATION OF THE LAUE METHOD TO STUDY THE STRUCTURE OF A NICKEL HEAT-RESISTANT ALLOY SAMPLE DESTROYED DURING MECHANICAL PROCESSING

The development of the composition of modern carbon-free Nickel heat-resistant alloys intended for casting single-crystal blades of GTE is aimed at increasing their long-term strength and temperature performance. For carbon-free Nickel heat-resistant alloys, there are restrictions on the presence of defects in the structure of the single-crystal casting, which can cause a decrease in the blade resource and even its destruction. The article presents the results of a study of the structure of a single-crystal sample of a Nickel heat-resistant alloy, brittle destroyed during mechanical processing by cutting. The study was carried out using x – ray diffractometry - "swing" and the Laue method. The possibilities of the Laue method for studying local defects of various origin are shown. Along with the angle of axial deviation, the Laue method allows us to obtain the position of the normal to the studied point of the sample surface relative to the main crystallographic directions of the structure. The locality of the method allows us to study the change in structural characteristics in the casting in the directions of interest: growth, from the center to the edge, as well as to study local defects of the structure in any place on the surface of the casting Nickel heat-resistant alloy, obtaining a diffraction pattern – a lauegram, for each point. Based on the obtained data, an assumption is made about the nature of structural defects in a single crystal of a Nickel heat-resistant alloy; the elastic properties of the single crystal are estimated. The study of defects in casting Nickel heat-resistant alloy method Laue suggested that the high temperature homogenizing annealing, apparently due to casting stresses, recrystallization occurred by twinning parts of the casting, resulting in a bicrystal formed, which at the stage of machining, at a relatively low compressive and bending load, split along the plane of the interface.

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2.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-13-20
УДК 66.017
Petrova A.P., Kuznetsova V.A., Lukina N.F., Isaev A.Yu.
INFLUENCE OF CORROSION INHIBITING PRIMER ON PROPERTIES OF THE GLUED JOINTS EXECUTED USING ORGANIC SILICON GLUE-HERMETIC

Authors of article consider problem of application of first coats before pasting by glue-hermetic Elasil 137-174M. In this work for surface protection of aluminum alloy as ingibiruyushchy first coat modified epoxy first coat EP-0214 (TU1-595-15-770–2004) which represents the two-component system consisting of semi-finished product of first coat and hardener (organic silicon ammine) has been investigated. Tests of samples of glued joints at the shift, executed using glue-hermetic Elasil-137-175M and D16AT aluminum alloy, carried out according to GOST 14757Показано that application of first coat EP-0214 for protection of the anodized surface of D16AT aluminum alloy of An. Oks.Nkhr before putting glue-hermetic Elasil 137-175M does not worsen durability of glued joints at shift:

– application of first coat EP-0214 in glued joints leads to durability increase at shift ~ for 5%. Similar results are received when testing glued joints for endurance limit at shift;

– in glued joints executed by glue-hermetic Elasil 137-175M after tests at temperature of 200 °C within 50 hours does not lead application of first coat EP-0214 to decrease in durability of glued joints at shift;

– application of first coat EP-0214 in the glued joints executed by glue-hermetic Elasil 137-175M, at temperature of tests 20 °C do not lead to decrease in vibration strength of glued joints, slight increase of vibration strength of glued joints is observed;

– application of first coat EP-0214 does not reduce water resistance and tropikostoykost of the above glued joints at shift. Availability of priming covering in glued joint promotes insignificant increase of durability at shift that it is possible to explain with further curing of glue at moisture influence.

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3.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-21-29
УДК 629.7.017
Satdinov R.A., Veshkin E.A, Postnov V.I.
ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF FIBERGLASS VPS-42P/T-64

Standard samples of fiberglass VPS-42P/T-64 were made, based on a fire-safe, fast-curing phenol-formaldehyde binder, grade VSF-16M, and glass fabric, grade T-64(VMP)-78, to study the effect of climatic factors on its elastic-strength properties and compliance with the requirements of AP-25 (FAR-25) of Annex F Part 1 and clause 831 on the content of harmful substances in the air emitted during operation. According to the test results obtained, it was found that the percentage of preservation of the properties of fiberglass after exposure to various climatic environments, in comparison with the initial values, ranges from 85 to 100%.

Work has been carried out to assess the microhardness of the polymer matrix over the thickness of the PCM. The study was carried out both in the initial state and after exposure to certain factors (temperature, moisture, moisture and temperature). Measurements of the microhardness of the PCM matrix were carried out on transverse thin sections in two mutually perpendicular planes, called the lateral and end surfaces, with a load on the microhardness tester indenter equal to 10 grams (0.1 N). The studies carried out have established that the value of the microhardness of the fiberglass matrix along its thickness from the front surface of the sample to its reverse surface changes according to a parabolic law with maximum values in the subsurface zones and minimum values in the core. The results of the study indicate that moisture negatively affects the microhardness of the polymer matrix in plastic, however, subsequent heat treatment of the plastic leads to the restoration of properties to the level of the original values.

The results of studies on the fireproof properties and the content of harmful substances in the air showed that the fiberglass complies with the AP-25 requirements.

Based on the stu

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4.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-30-39
УДК 678
Gunyaeva A.G., Sidorina A.I., Klimenko O.N.
POLYMERIC COMPOSITE MATERIAL ON THE BASIS OF THE HYBRID METALCARBON REINFORCING FILLER: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATION

Among the polymeric composite materials (PKM) applied in modern areas of the industry, now the broadest consumption have CFRP – polymeric composite materials on the basis of carbon reinforcing fillers in the form of different textile forms (fabric, wattled preformy, plaits and others).

Creation of new unique reinforcing fillers from high-strength carbon fibers is actual scientific and technical task, and its successful decision will allow to expand the range of carbon reinforcing fillers for development of PKM of new generation.

The domestic hybrid metalcarbon reinforcing filler has been developed for expansion of the range of carbon reinforcing fillers for production of PKM in the Russian market in FGUP VIAM from carbon fiber and the copper wire interwoven into its structure and researches PKM on the basis of new filler are conducted.

In article influence interwoven into structure of carbon reinforcing filler of copper soft tinned wire 0,1 mm thick on reaction capacity of prepregs for the purpose of assessment of modes of its formation is considered and physic-mechanical characteristics CFRP on its basis in comparison with CFRP without wire are investigated.

For carrying out comparative researches of properties experimental samples of prepreg and CFRP on the basis of epoxy molten binding and two fillers have been made: hybrid metalcarbon reinforcing filler of the VTkU-2.280M brand and equal strength fabric of twill weaving VTkU-2.200. All components of materials (binding and fillers) are made in FGUP VIAM.

Possible scopes of material on the basis of hybrid metalcarbon reinforcing filler of the VTkU-2.280M brand and epoxy molten binding in different industries (aviation, construction, and also industrial design) are considered. However issue of sp

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5.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-40-50
УДК 678
Barannikov A.A., Postnov V.I., Veshkin E.A, Starostina I.V.
LINK BETWEEN THE ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SURFACE OF FIBERGLASS OF THE VPS-53К BRAND AND THE STRENGTH OF THE ADHESIVE JOINT BASED ON IT

The article is devoted to establishing the relationship between the energy characteristics of the surface of fiberglass of the VPS-53K brand with the strength of the adhesive connection based on: the study of the surface of fiberglass before and after treatment with atmospheric pressure plasma, based on the study of the phenomenon of wetting with test liquids; determining the free energy of the surface and its components, since the knowledge of polar ( and dispersion ( components of the free energy of the surface; determining the work of adhesion. The problem of low adhesive strength of the adhesive joint based on fiberglass of the VPS-53K brand and «cold-curing» adhesives is highlighted. The results of investigation of the surface of fiberglass of the VPS-53K brand before and after its treatment with atmospheric pressure plasma, which is one of the advanced methods of surface preparation for various adhesive processes, based on the study of the wetting phenomenon, are obtained. The obtained surface free energy indicators (using the Owens–Wendt–Rabel–Kaelble method and the extended Fowkes method) and the adhesion performance before and after processing with atmospheric pressure plasma and comparing them with each other show that atmospheric pressure plasma has a positive effect on increasing their indicators. This especially affected the increase in the polar component of the free energy of the surface of fiberglass of the VPS-53K brand for the Owens-Wendt-Rabel- Kaelble method, and the hydrogen component for the extended Fowkes method. It was found that the strength of the adhesive joint, based on fiberglass of the VPS-53K brand and VK-27 glue, increases after processing the fiberglass surface, which correlates with an increase in the adhesion performance of the contacting phases «test liquid – fiberglass surface».

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6.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-51-62
УДК 666.3:620.1
Lebedeva Yu.E., Afanasiev-Khodykin A.N., Prokopchenko G.M., Shavnev A.A., Serebryakov D.I.
OBTAINING OF EXPERIMENTAL CONSTRUCTIONALLY SIMILAR SAMPLE OF THE NOZZLE ASSEMBLY SECTOR AND CARRYING OUT ITS TESTS AT TEMPERATURE OF 1500 °С

The development of methods for fastening structural elements made of ceramic and metal materials is an urgent task due to the fact that recently the requirements for heat-loaded units of propulsion systems have been increasing and more and more work is being done to obtain parts from ceramic composite materials. One of the binding methods is high temperature soldering. For soldering of nickel heat-resistant alloys widespread in the aviation industry are complex-alloyed heat-resistant nickel and nickel-copper-manganese alloys of the VPpr series.

A construction of experimental constructionally similar sample of the nozzle assembly sector was made and developed from uncooled turbine nozzle blade prototypes from SiC–SiCw–B4C–AlN system CCM and EP648 alloy shelves together with ODK-Klimov. The technology of high-temperature brazing of CCM with EP648 alloy was tested using highly alloyed heat-resistant nickel and nickel-copper-manganese solders of the VPr series. To bracing prototypes of an uncooled nozzle blade of a turbine from CCM, a VPr50 solder was chosen as part of an experimental structurally similar sample of the nozzle assembly sector due to its lowest erosion activity both with respect to EP648 alloy and SiC–SiCw–B4C–AlN system CCM.

A prototype of an uncooled turbine nozzle blade made of ceramic composite material was tested as part of an experimental constructionally similar sample of the nozzle assembly sector at a temperature of 1500 °C in Central Institute of Aviation Motors after P.I. Baranova.

Prototypes of an uncooled nozzle blade of a turbine from CCM as part of an experimental structurally similar sample of the sector of the nozzle assembly withstood high-temperature tests for heat and heat resistance at a temperature of 1500

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7.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-63-72
УДК 621.791
Krasnov E.I., Kurbatkina E.I., Shavnev A.A., Serpova V.M., Zhabin A.N.
APPLICATION OF THE ACTIVE BRAZING METHOD FOR CONNECTING FIBER MATERIALS WITH CERAMIC MATERIALS (rеview)

The article presents a literary review of the application of the active brazing method for joining fibrous composite materials based on titanium alloy with ceramics based on aluminum oxide and zirconium dioxide.

The ability to combine the properties of fibrous materials based on titanium alloys with the properties of other materials, such as ceramics, by heterogeneous coupling can allow the development of components not only with complex geometry, but also with a combination of properties that exceed the properties of these materials in individual use. The use of combined compounds of fiber materials with ceramic materials is relevant and highly demanded for the production of innovative products for various purposes in strategic industries (aviation, space, automotive and shipbuilding).

However, the heterogeneous combination of metal and ceramics presents a number of problems that lead to difficulties in obtaining a defect-free microstructure and high mechanical strength of the compounds.

The formation of residual stresses at the interface is crucial in these dissimilar joints due to the mismatch cltr join dissimilar materials, but other factors, such as technological connection parameters (temperature, pressure and residence time) and surface quality also have a significant impact on the reliability of the connection.

The use of brazing alloy based on Ag and Ti, allows you to obtain high-quality compounds of titanium alloys with ceramic with acceptable mechanical strength. However, the resulting phases, the thickness of the reaction layers and the formation of residual stresses do not allow to obtain compounds with high mechanical properties. Adding elements such as B, T and W to the brazing alloy increases the mechanical properties of the compound, as it contributes to the formation of f

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8.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-73-80
УДК 678.747.2:620.1
Evdokimov A.A., Imametdinov E.S., Malakhovskiy S.S.
STRENGTHENING CONCRETE BUILDING STRUCTURE VIA REINFORCEMENT EXTERNAL SYSTEM FROM CARBON PLASTIC

The work is devoted to the study of the influence of full-scale exposure on the properties of CFRP of brand VRE-24/LR-300. Tests in various climatic zones (Moscow, Gelendzhik) of concrete samples externally reinforced with carbon fiber reinforced plastic were tested. It was established that natural aging, aging in a tropical and heat-humidification chamber for three months, as well as at 80 °C for 2,000 hours, does not affect the appearance of CFRP. The physico-mechanical characteristics of concrete samples externally reinforced with CFRP before and after exposure have been investigated. It was determined that the value of tensile tensile stress during bending of concrete samples externally reinforced with CFRP on average exceeds the strength of concrete samples by 5,5 times; Strength gain after exposure under various conditions remains at the level of 2,5–8,5 times. The protective properties of externally reinforcing CFRP reinforced concrete are investigated. It was determined that after 30 days of exposure in water, the gain for concrete without reinforcement was 6.98 mass %; for concrete externally reinforced with CFRP 0,19 wt.%. According to the results of water resistance tests and in various climatic zones (no change in appearance and preservation of the level of physical and mechanical properties), it was found that the externally reinforcing concrete CFRP has protective properties. Physico-mechanical and fireproof properties of CFRP samples are investigated. It was determined that the density of CFRP based on the VSE-24 binder is 1,41 g/cm3, the thickness of the monolayer is 0,19 mm CFRP, porosity is 3,6%, tensile strength is 1130 MPa (based); the compressive strength is 935 MPa (based), the shear strength in the sheet plane is 50 MPa. It was determined that the duration of the residual carbon fiber burning is >60s, the carbonization length is 290 mm, the smoke generation group is V<

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9.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-81-89
УДК 678
Klimenko O.N., Valueva M.I., Rybnikova A.N.
POLYMERS AND POLYMER COMPOSITES IN SPORT (review)

In the modern world, sport is an important and integral part of our life and you can observe how the sports industry is actively developing thanks to the implementation of the achievements of scientific and technological progress in production.

Based on the analysis of literary sources, an overview of the information and analysis of the practical use of РСМ in the manufacture of sports equipment, as well as in the construction of sports facilities, is presented.

The world's leading developers and manufacturers of materials for sports products are Toray Industries Inc. (Japan), Teijin Limited (Japan), SGL Group (Germany), Hexion Inc. (USA), Hexcel (USA), Aldila Inc. (USA), Amer Sports (Finland), Jarden Composites (USA), Fischer Sports GmbH (Austria), Topkey Corporation (Taiwan) and Rossingol (France).

 For the period until 2021, the average annual growth rate of the market for sports goods made from PCM will be 5,59%. It is expected that the fastest growing area will be equipment made of epoxy resin composites, including hardenable ones, speaking about fiber types, the fastest growing segment of the sports industry is carbon fiber goods.

Sports equipment and clothing companies from all over the world are constantly improving the sports industry with the help of modern technologies and presenting their innovations and achievements at various exhibitions of sports goods and technologies.

The use of cost-effective, high-tech materials for the development of the production of domestic sports equipment will fill a niche in the Russian and international markets and will become an important factor in the growth of the potential of Russian athletes, both professional and amateur. In this connection, monitoring and analysis of scientific and technical litera

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10.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-90-96
УДК 629.7.083
Iatsyuk I.V., Dobrynin D.A., Doronin O.N., Pavlova T.V.
METHODS FOR REMOVING HEAT RESISTANT COATINGS (rеview)

Nowadays, the actual scientific and technical task of the aircraft industry in order to save and increase the service life is the repair and restoration of gas turbine engine parts, in particular, spent turbine blades. The industry is actively introducing new repair technologies, an integral stage of which is the process of removing waste coatings, carbon deposits and scale from the surface of parts. The presented work provides a detailed review of the most common industrial methods of removal of coatings.

The largest number of developments in the field of disposal of spent service life of heat-resistant coatings belongs to American and European companies. In the Russian Federation it is in «Scientific and Production Center of Gas Turbine Engineering «Salyut» (Moscow), Ufa State Aviation Technical University, «Scientific Production Enterprise «Uralspetstechnology» (Ufa), FSUE «VIAM» (Moscow) and other organizations.

However, traditional methods of removing coatings have a number of significant drawbacks: high labor intensity, possible damage to the geometric shape and structure of the workpiece, the possible introduction of an abrasive material into the base (mechanical methods), the need for constant environmental monitoring and fire protection. safety, etc.

The most promising method for removing coatings is electrolytic-plasma surface treatment. This method is able to completely replace the toxic chemical and electrochemical processing methods, as well as laborious methods of mechanical processing.

For the first time in the domestic and foreign aviation industry, FSUE VIAM has developed and tested a promising comprehensive technology for repairing spent turbine blades, including removing coatings by electrolytic-plasma surface treatment, re

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11.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-97-105
УДК 669.018.44:669.245
Khodinev I.A., Monin S.A.
ANISOTROPY OF LOW CYCLE FATIGUE CHARACTERISTICS OF SINGLE-CRYSTAL HEAT-RESISTANT NICKEL ALLOYS
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12.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-10-106-115
УДК 551:502
Startsev V.O., Slavin A.V., Nikolaev E.V.
STUDY OF THE CONTENT OF AGGRESSIVE IONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE AND SEA WATER OF THE GELENDZHIK BAY

The issue of using the method of capillary electrophoresis (KEF) to study the content of aggressive ions in the atmosphere and sea water of the Gelendzhik Bay is considered. Between September 1, 2019 and January 31, 2020, measurements were taken at seven monitoring points of the Gelendzhik Bay. Five points were selected inside the bay, two points – outside. At one point, measurements were taken daily; at six points, weekly. At the same time, atmospheric parameters (temperature and relative humidity, wind direction and speed, total solar radiation) and sea water (temperature, salinity, hydrogen index) were recorded.

It was revealed that the autumn and winter months were characterized by significant changes in meteorological indicators and large differences in the minimum and maximum concentrations of aggressive ions in air and sea water. Good agreement was found between the percentage of ions in the sea water of the Gelendzhik Bay, measured by the KEF method, with published data. It was revealed that a higher level of aggressive ion content is observed at points 1 (recreation center «Vzlet») and 7 (pier of the village of «Divnomorskoe»), that is, outside the Gelendzhik Bay, where the salinity of sea water is higher.

The possibility of modeling the concentration of aggressive ions in the atmosphere and sea water depending on the values of environmental parameters using a multilinear dependence is considered. It is shown that the correlation between factors and responses is insufficient to achieve the adequacy of the model. It has been suggested that one of the responses be included in many factors of the model. In this case, the coefficient of determinism of the model for all points in water and air is significantly improved, and the calculation error is halved. The possibility of establishing the relationship between the concentratio

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