Articles

 


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1.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-3-8
УДК 669.018.44:669.245
Volkov A.M., Karashaev M.M., Bakradze M.M., Pustynnikov T.O.
ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES OF THE INCRESING OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF P/M Ni-BASED SUPERALLOYS FOR JET-ENGINE DISK APPLICATION (review)

The article presents the overview of technological solutions that currently have not found wide apply in the production of disk billets from P/M Ni-based superalloys for high-pressure compressor and turbine of aircraft jet-engines. The methods of forming the specific phase composition of the alloys, the methods of powder production which are alternative to gas atomization and plasma rotate electrode process, the works in the field of liquid-phase sintering, the original methods of forming dual microstructure structure over the profile of disc blanks are considered.

Ni-based superalloys with a niobium content of up to 16–22%, as well as alloys containing about 8% aluminum and up to 38% cobalt are reviewed as a further development of approaches to the alloying of disk materials.           The results of studies on the possibility of the increasing of the melt cooling rate upon receipt of powders in the form of flakes and fibers are given. The results of works on liquid-phase sintering in which diffusion processes are more active than in standard hot isostatic pressing process are described. Among the original methods of obtaining a dual microstructure structure over the profile of disc blanks patents for managing grain size due to controlled boron diffusion are presented. Also some methods are described for the internal oxidation of rare-earth elements contained in the alloy to local formation of the dispersion oxides that inhibit the growth of grains and the separation of powder particles by size in the rotating steel can.

In general the considered technologies are alternative to successfully proven ways to improve mechanical properties associated with the complication of alloying, computer simulation of the production technologies, the use of rare-earth elements, the introduction of resource-saving technolo

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2.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-9-17
УДК 621.7.043:669.018.44
Ponomarenko D.A., Skugorev A.V., Kin T.Yu., Shpagin A.S.
FORGING OF BLANKS OF TURBINE DISKS OF SMALL-SIZE GAS TURBINE ENGINES FROM VAR-INGOTS OF ALLOY EP742-ID BY USING ISOTHERMAL PRESSES

At the present time production of disk blanks of turbine of small-size gas turbine engines from heat-resistant nickel-based alloys is carried out by stamping method of predeformed (forged and pressed) cut-to-length blanks. FSUE “VIAM” has advanced manufacturing capabilities in the field of special metallurgy from melting and electrode remelting to total quality control of semifinished materials. By reason of continuous increase in price of forging bars and, in particular, pressed ones from heat-resistant nickel-based alloys which are supplied by large metallurgical companies the alternative sources of raw materials for disk blank production of turbine of small-size gas turbine engines should be find. Own low-tonnage manufacture of VAR-ingots is an example of such source.

Usually VAR-ingots are used for production of disk blanks of large dimension. The deformation schedule which makes possible efficiently to work cast structure in the blanks of small dimension was developed by specialists of FSUE “VIAM” with using computer modeling of technological processes. The batch of pilot isothermal forged blanks of small-size gas turbine engines from heat-resistant nickel-based alloy EP 742-ID was produced. Pilot blanks fully in geometrical dimensions and quality requirements with ones which are produced in series for domestic engine manufacturing. Experimental results showed that pilot blanks fully complied in quality characteristics with the standard process documentation on the production in series.

As a result of work principal possibility of obtaining isothermal forged blank of turbine of small-size gas turbine engines from own melted VAR-ingots of required quality was shown. Proposed scheme of thermomechanical treatment can be used for obtaining blank of turbine of small-size gas turbine engines from modern and perspective deformed heat-resist

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3.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-18-26
УДК 629.7.083
Dobrynin D.A., Pavlova T.V., Afanasev-Khodykin A.N., Alekseeva M.S.
THE USE OF ELECTROLYTIC-PLASMA TREATMENT FOR REPAIR OF GTE BLADES

A comparison of traditional methods for removing protective coatings from the surface of GTE blades (mechanical, chemical and electrochemical) with the method of electrolytic-plasma removal of coatings has been carried out. The indisputable advantages of electrolyte-plasma removal of protective coatings are revealed in comparison with traditional methods of removing coatings - high process performance, low cost of electrolyte components, their low consumption and low toxicity, the possibility of uniform processing of products with complex geometry when using counter-electrodes that mimic the geometry of the workpiece.

A two-component electrolyte based on an inorganic salt has been developed and modes have been selected for removing heat-resistant MCrAlY coatings from the surface of GTE blades made of high-temperature alloys of the ZhS type.

A comprehensive repair of the blades was carried out, including the following operations: sandblasting the outer surface of the blades from soot and gas corrosion products, electrolyte-plasma removal of spent heat-resistant coatings of MCrAlY composition from the outer surface of the blades in the developed electrolyte and according to selected modes, hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and thermal processing in order to restore the structure of the material of the blades, metal physics studies of the microstructure of the blades after the ISU and heat treatment, toskopichesky (luminescence) control and damaged areas solder surface machining soldering places the step of applying the composition MCrAlY coating to the external surface of the blades.

According to the results of metalphysical studies of the microstructure of the blades after the HIP and heat treatment, it was established that the cubic morphology of the γʹ-phase was restored. The luminescent control showed that there are no def

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4.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-27-35
УДК 669.018.44:669.245
Shpagin A.S., Kucheryaev V.V., Bubnov M.V.
COMPUTER SIMULATION OF THERMOMECHANICAL PROCESSING OF HEAT-RESISTANT NICKEL ALLOYS VZh175 AND EP742

The article is devoted to computer simulation of the processes of thermomechanical processing of heat-resistant nickel alloys VZh175 and EP742 used for the manufacture of parts for gas turbine engines.

Software systems for modeling metal forming processes using the finite element method are considered. The principles of their work are described and the sequence of actions for developing a database of the rheological properties of metallic materials is given. The need to develop a database of the rheological properties of metals is described.

Experimental studies on the determination of the flow stress of a material at various temperatures, velocities and degrees of deformation are described. As a test method, the method of precipitation of cylindrical samples is given, and the criteria for choosing temperature, speed, and power-law deformation intervals are given.

A comparative analysis of the calculated and experimental values of energy-power parameters and shaping has been carried out. An assessment of the reliability of the developed databases of the rheological properties of VZh175 and EP742 alloys has been carried out. The calculation of the total modeling error is shown by finding the prediction error of a geometric shape and the error in calculating the deformation force.

A comparative analysis of the shaping and energy-power parameters in the real process and using computer simulation is presented. Using the example of manufacturing serial forgings from alloy EP742, the advantages of using the developed database over the use of the analog alloys as the initial database are shown.

In conclusion, an assessment of the feasibility of work on the development of databases of the rheological properties of metallic materials is given. The advantages tha

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5.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-36-45
УДК 66.017
Sevostyanov N.V., Burkovskaya N.P., Bolsunovskaya T.A., Efimochkin I.Yu.
INFLUENCE OF TESTING TEMPERATURE ON Ti3SiC2 TITANIUM CARBOSILICIDE TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

The paper comprises the information on the tribological properties of materials based on titanium carbosilicide obtained by various researchers. Although titanium carbosilicide is positioned as an antifriction material, its average coefficient of friction, obtained in various tribological tests, is quite large and averages meaning is 0.3.

A comparative assessment of titanium carbosilicide in comparison with layered materials such as graphite and tetragonal boron nitride is given. The layered structure of titanium carbosilicide assigns its special physical and mechanical properties. According to the example of microcrack propagation, it can be seen that the energy is extinguished by side branches.

A hypothesis has been advanced about the effect of a greater binding energy of atoms between basal, or easy cleavage, planes of Ti3SiC2, with the result that the friction coefficient of titanium carbosilicide is significantly higher than that of the traditional layered materials. For its verification, tribological tests were performed at elevated temperatures. Studies of the friction coefficient of the titanium carbosilicide based material at ambient temperature up to 400°C with counter bodies made of EP866 steel and VK-6 hard alloy have been carried out. According to the tribological tests data, the friction coefficient decreases with increasing temperature due to a decrease in the binding energy between the basal, or easy cleavage, planes of Ti3SiC2. An anomalous change in the friction coefficient in the temperature range of 100–200°C has been established. This feature of the titanium carbosilicide tribotechnical properties, as a material with a layered structure, was explained by qualitative changes in the friction surface associated with the physical processes of gas and mois

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6.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-46-55
УДК 66.017
Kuznetsova V.A., Kozlova A.A., Zheleznyak V.G., Shapovalov G.G.
INFLUENCE OF ELASTOMERIC MODIFIERS ON PROPERTIES OF METALPOLYMERIC COMPOSITIONS

In this work influence of low-molecular rubbers PDI-3AK and PDI-3A on technological and operational properties of putties on the basis of epoxy and polyamide metal-polymeric compositions is investigated.

Mechanical characteristics are investigated: durability at gap and discontinuous lengthenings free films of epoxy and rubber compositions in initial condition and after thermoageing. From the received results follows that with increase in the content of low-molecular rubbers durability at gap monotonously decreases, and discontinuous lengthenings  monotonously increase. Thermoageing of the cured modified metal-polymeric compositions leads to insignificant decrease in durability at stretching (elasticity), thus durability at blow remains at initial level.

Technological properties of putty materials on the basis of the modified metal-polymeric compositions are defined. It is established that with increase in the content of rubber the surface workability after curing improves.

Adhesive durability is determined at separation the putty materials received on the basis of metal-polymeric compositions, modified by the PPG-3A rubber, put on samples with priming covering EP-0214. The maximum value of adhesive durability at separation is reached at the content of PPG-3A rubber in number of 20% mass.

Influence of the content of low-molecular rubbers PDI-3AK and PPG-3A in metal-polymeric composition on the hardness of the created putty layer is investigated. It is established that with increase in the content of rubber the hardness of putty layer monotonously decreases. It is defined, dependence of hardness of putty layer on duration of its curing. It is established that the maximum value of hardness is reached in 4 days of curing under natural conditions. The metal-polymeric compositions modified

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7.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-56-66
УДК 666.1.056
Melnikov A.A., Schur P.A.
TRANSPARENT CONDUCTIVE ANTIREFLECTIVE COATINGS BASED ON ITO, SiO2, TiO2

Transparent electrically conductive coatings are now widely used in science and technology, in particular in the aviation industry. The paper proposed developed coatings that combine the properties of electrically conductive and antireflection, while such coatings are made as part of a single stack of coatings. The coatings were formed using ion-plasma technology, namely vacuum reactive magnetron sputtering of a target cathode made of silicon, titanium, and an indium-tin alloy. The method of magnetron vacuum sputtering of films allows them to be applied with high uniformity on large (up to 350×500 mm) solid (silicate glasses) and flexible substrates (polyethyleneterephthalate, PET film). This paper presents the results of the development and manufacture of coatings based on indium tin oxide (ITO) on various substrates, ITO coatings with a single-layer anti-reflective coating (AR1) SiO2 and with a three-layer anti-reflective coating (AR3) SiO2–TiO2–SiO2. For coatings on silicate glasses, the following characteristics are achieved: transmittance>93%, surface resistance RsurfR<1% with two-sided deposition of anti-reflective coatings.

The simplest is the scheme of manufacturing a single layer of ITO coating on a substrate. At the same time, the optical and electrophysical properties of the coating are interrelated with the possibility of shifting the balance in the direction of increasing the integral transmittance T or decreasing the surface resistance Rsurf by adjusting the thickness and parameters of the coating manufacturing process. To increase T and reduce the reflection coefficient R over the ITO coating, an AR1 or AR3 coating can be applied, allowing T to increase to 90% and reduce R to 5% and the int

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8.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-67-78
УДК 620.1:629.7.023
Antipov V.V., Medvedev I.M., Kutyrev A.E., Volkov I.A.
RAPID ASSESSMENT OF HOT WATER SEALED ANODIC OXIDE COATINGS PROTECTIVE PROPERTIES DURING NaCl IMMERSION TESTING

Multilayer systems based on anodizing and painting are used in the aircraft industry for aluminum alloys corrosion protection. Porous anodic oxide coatings with insufficient corrosion protection properties are formed during anodizing in chromium-free electrolytes. These coatings are sealed for better corrosion protection. Hot water sealing is one of the most widely used methods to enhance aluminum anodic oxide coatings protective properties. Lengthy neutral salt spray tests (usually at least 336 h) are commonly used for assessment of sealed aluminum anodic oxide (AAO) coatings protective properties. The present study aims to develop the electrochemical criterion for rapid evaluation of hot water sealed anodic oxide coatings protection properties. Coatings were obtained by 1163, V-1461, V96c3pch aluminum alloys anodizing in sulfuric acid water solution for 15, 30, 45 minutes, followed by hot water sealing in deionized water. Immersion in neutral 3% NaCl solution was used to evaluate the protective properties of AAO coatings. Low thickness (15 min anodizing) coatings were tested for 1440 h and medium and high thickness (30, 45 min anodizing, respectively) coatings were tested up to 3600 h. Equivalent electrical circuits (EEC) parameters of sealed anodic oxide coating were obtained by fitting EIS data. Two R-CPE circuits EEC was used to fit impedance spectra. Changes in EEC parameters of coatings were studied during the immersion testing: capacitive properties and resistance of anodic oxide layer are almost constant, while EECs’ sealing parameters change during the initial period of testing. Impedance modulus at low frequencies cannot be used to evaluate protective properties of sealed AAO: even if there are corrosion spots, impedance modulus at frequencies below 1 Hz is almost constant until complete failure of a coating. Change in sealing capacitive parameter CPEseal-T during the first 24 h of testing in NaCl solution&

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9.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-79-89
УДК 629.7.023: 669.715
Duyunova V.A., Kozlov I.A., Oglodkov M.S., Kozlova A.A.
MODERN TRENDS IN THE ANODIC OXIDATION OF ALUMINUM-LITHIUM AND ALUMINUM ALLOYS (review)

The work is devoted to the analysis of modern scientific works in the field of application of non-metallic inorganic coatings by anodic oxidation on aluminum and aluminum-lithium alloys. The modern trends of anodic oxidation technology are considered, and the results of scientific research are compared with traditional technologies. The main attention in the analysis of scientific research is focused on the mechanism of influence of alloying elements of aluminum alloys coming to the surface, technological solutions to eliminate the use of toxic compounds in anodic oxidation and subsequent filling.

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10.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-90-97
УДК 669.017
Alekseev A.V., Rastegayeva G.Yu., Pahomkina T.N., Razmakhov M.G.
DETERMINATION SULFUR, CARBON, NITROGEN AND OXYGEN IN ALLOYS OF SYSTEM Co–Fe–Co–B AND Gd–Fe–Co–B

Modern navigation devices require the use of magnetic materials with both magnetic and thermostable properties. The most promising such materials are alloys of REM-Fe-Co-B (REM – rare earth metals). These alloys are increasingly used for the manufacture of magnets used in the production of dynamically adjustable gyroscopes (DNG) and accelerometers and are characterized by wider temperature ranges than previously used materials.

The main properties of alloys of REM-Fe-Co-B systems directly depend on their chemical composition, both on the content of the main components of the system, and on the content of various impurities – nitrogen, oxygen, carbon and sulfur. Production of high-quality materials is not possible without precise control of the content of these impurities in the alloys.

Classical methods for the determination of sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon are extremely time-consuming, time-consuming and require the use of a large number of different reagents and equipment. Modern methods for the determination of sulfur and carbon in various objects is the method of burning the sample sample in an induction furnace of the gas analyzer, followed by detection in the infrared cell of the spectrometer, and for the determination of nitrogen and oxygen, reducing melting in a vacuum or in an inert carrier gas stream is used.

In this paper, the alloys of Ce-Fe-Co-B and Gd-Fe-Co-B systems were analyzed for the content of gas-forming impurities. The sulfur and carbon content was determined by combustion in the induction furnace of the LECO CS-444 gas analyzer with subsequent detection in the infrared cell of the spectrometer, and for the determination of oxygen and nitrogen, the method of reducing melting in the inert carrier gas current was used, followed by detection of oxygen in the infrared cell and nitrogen in t

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11.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-98-108
УДК 629.7.083
Veshkin E.A, Startsev V.O., Postnov V.I., Barannikov A.A.
THE CLIMATE IMPACTS AS THE ASSESSMENT OF MAINTAINABILITY OF PRODUCTS FROM CARBON FIBER

The article is devoted to investigation of mechanical characteristics and indicators of moisture transfer to the monolithic and three-layer cell samples on the basis of CFRP VKU-30K.R14535 in the initial state, after the mechanical shock damage and after the repairs, taking into account climate impacts. For research was made monolithic and three-layer cell samples, which are subsequently deposited mechanical damage regulated by State Standard 33496–2015. After the damage was caused, ultrasonic testing of samples was carried out, as a result of which the destruction zone was determined and the repair zone was prepared. Selected schemes and materials for repair. As a result of all the preparatory work, the samples with damages were repaired. For climate testing of the source, the attack and repaired the monolithic and three-layer cell samples were exposed to the natural climatic-cal trials in the temperate – warm climate for a period of 3, 6, 12 months. Based on the results of the work, the chosen technology of repair of monolithic and three-layer cellular samples after calibrated shock damage is experimentally justified. The influence of impact energy on the strength parameters and characteristics of moisture transfer of monolithic samples in the damaged state and after repair is studied. The influence of impact energy on three-layer cellular samples on the characteristics of moisture transfer in the damaged state and after repair is studied. It is shown that the effect on the climate in the temperate warm climate with a duration of 3 months additional impact on the decrease of the strength indicators in the original and damaged condition of the samples. After repair, the mechanical properties of monolithic samples are at a satisfactory level. It is shown that the climatic influence in the conditions of moderate-warm climate lasting 3, 6 months has an additional effect on the increase of moisture transfer in the damaged sta

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12.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-8-109-118
УДК 66.017:536.24
Barinov D.Y., Ospennikova O.G., Marachovskiy P.C.
STUDY OF HEATING DYNAMICS OF DESTRUCTIVE HEAT PROTECTIVE MATERIAL BY THE METHOD OF MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF TEMPERATURE FIELDS

One of the main problems solved by designers in the development of high-speed aircraft is the task of protecting the airframe elements from high-temperature oxidative gas flow. First introduced during the creation of the head parts of the first long-range ballistic missiles, the problem was solved with the use of destructible heat protection materials, which are kind of washings and coatings. The lack of calculation methods for heat and mass transfer in heat protective materials left its mark, and the choice of the type of material, thickness and properties of the coatings was carried out with full-scale testing of the entire system with the whole, using the «launch» method.

The paper proposed a physical and mathematical model of heat and mass transfer in a destructive heat protective material, which is a quartz fiber impregnated with a silicone binder. Models take into account the temperature-time mode of heating a model sample, while on the side surfaces various boundary conditions can be realized: convective, radiation and incident heat fluxes or the condition of thermal insulation. Baseline data for modeling include both the geometric dimensions of the sample and the thermal physical (thermal conductivity, heat capacity, density) and kinetic (number of stages, pre-exponential factors, activation energies, exponents) characteristics of the material.

For modeling, the temperature dependences of the thermophysical characteristics of the material were determined experimentally using thermoanalytical equipment. In the MSC.Marc software package, a simulation of heat and mass transfer was carried out in a model material sample when descending from the Earth’s orbit along a model trajectory. The dependences of temperature and density fields on time were obtained. The depth of the destructed layer and the thickness of the layer in which the destruct

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