Articles

 


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1.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-3-12
УДК 621.745.3
Kablov E.N., Echin A.B., Bondarenko Yu.A.
HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF DIRECTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT FOR CASTING BLADES OF GAS TURBINE ENGINES

The development of aircraft engine building is based both on the constant improvement of the design of gas turbine engines, and on improving the mechanical properties of materials used in the manufacture of parts of gas turbine engines. In Russia, at the same time with the technology of precision casting for smelting models to improve the mechanical properties of Nickel heat-resistant alloys in the 1970s began to use the process of directional crystallization, for which specialized equipment was created – furnaces such as PMP-2, PMP-4. They were actively used in the production of working blades GTE products of General constructor Kuznetsov N. D. in the USSR.

In the future, to improve the quality of the structure in the mass production of blades GTE was applied technology of directional crystallization with a liquid metal cooler, aluminum melt. This technology and the industrial equipment created in FSUE «VIAM» found wide application practically at all plants of branch, installations of type UVNK-8P were also delivered abroad: China, India. Subsequently, the FSUE «VIAM» conducted fundamental studies to assess the impact of conditions of directed crystallization on the structure of superalloys, developed a process of high-gradient directed crystallization, created samples of unique research melting and crystallization equipment for alloys, including on the basis of refractory matrices of the Nb–Si system. It was found that the alloys of the Nb–Si system in terms of heat-resistant properties at a temperature of 1200°C are twice as superior to Nickel superalloys. Now in FSUE «VIAM» delivers new industrial high-performance installations of casting of blades of GTE with the directed and monocrystalline structure-UVNK-9A, UVNK-11 having computer control system of parameters of technological process, for plants of branch.

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2.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-13-29
УДК 669.017.165:669.018.44
Petrushin N.V., Elyutin E.S., Chabina E.B.
PHASE AND STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN DIRECTIONALLY SOLIDIFIED WITH PLANT FRONT INTERMETALLIC EUTECTIC Ni-BASED ALLOYS

Ingots of samples of eutectic intermetallic nickel-base alloys γʹ+β, β+δ(Re), γʹ+NbC and γ/γʹ+NbC with natural composite structure respectively of the systems Ni–Al–W, Ni–Al–Re, Ni–Al–Nb–C and Ni–Al–Cr–Co–W–Mo–Nb–C are produced by the method of directional solidification with a plan front. Investigation are produced characteristics of the eutectic composites microstructure and phase composition, segregation of alloying elements along the composite zone of ingot, solidus temperature, liquidus temperature, volume fraction fibers δ(Re) and NbC in eutectic composites. For samples eutectic composite system Ni–Al–Cr–Cr–W–Mo–Nb–C with heterophase matrix base γʹ phase reinforced fibers of NbC-carbide tensile tests were performed in the temperature interval 201200 °С and long-term strength in the temperature interval 9001200 °С at bases up to 1000 h.

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3.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-30-40
УДК 669.017
Konokotin S.P., Iatsyuk I.V., Dobrynin D.A., Azarovskiy E.N.
INFLUENCE OF YTTRIUM ON THE QUALITY OF CAST BILLETS FROM ALLOYS BASED ON ALUMINUM

The coating method developed by VIAM is based on high-energy vacuum-plasma technology, where cast tube cathodes made of, among other things, aluminum alloys are used as the sprayed material.

The study showed that during smelting of the cathode from an alloy of the grade VSDP-18 with the introduction of yttrium in an amount of 4.5–5.0% (to refine the alloy and improve the technological characteristics of the cathode that affect the quality of the coating) a dense layer is formed on the surface of the melt containing oxide yttrium. After holding the melt (to assimilate the bulk of yttrium in it) and reaching the process temperature, the liquid metal is poured into a cast graphite mold. When pouring, flowing down the walls, it flushes graphite microparticles from its surface and mixes with them. As a result, the liquid metal contains carbon interstitial impurities and oxide, the presence of which is revealed by studying the microstructure of the alloy in samples cut from the upper and middle parts of the cast tube cathode, where the content is: oxygen 10.4–15.1%, and carbon 8.02% The study showed that in the structure of samples cut from the lower part of the cast cathode, these impurities are absent. The study of the cast structure of tube cathodes from complex intermetallic alloys based on aluminum with a high yttrium content of 3.5–5.0% showed that:

– the use of molds from materials containing interstitial impurities (carbon, oxygen, silicon) leads to the formation of a large number of gas pores and marriage casting;

– with increasing rate of crystallization of the alloy in the mold, the number and size of gas pores in the volume of the casting decreases.

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4.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-41-48
УДК 678.072
Tkachuk A.I., Terekhov I.V., Afanaseva E.A.
REACTIVE TYPE FLAME RETARDANTS FOR EPOXY RESINS. Part 1

One of the most effective methods to reduce the flammability of epoxy polymeric materials is to introduce flame retardants into their composition. These additives create conditions in which polymer products are less susceptible to ignition or burning. However, many of them are heterogeneous additives (aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxides and carbonates, etc.) and they significantly reduce the mechanical properties of finished products. The solution to this problem is flame retardants with reactive groups which are able to integrate into the structure of the polymer using chemical bonds and reduce their combustibility without a significant reduction in mechanical properties. Halogenated epoxy resins are widespread representatives of this type flame retardants, however, the initial brominated and chlorinated compounds can have a significant toxicological effect, therefore, many modern studies are devoted to creation of halogen-free additives that reduce combustion.

The work considers the combustion mechanism of polymer materials and the main ways to increase the resistance to combustion of these materials. Halogenated epoxy resins and organophosphorus compounds – phosphates, phosphonates, and widely researched derivatives of 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide, which are harmless to human health and when burning do not emit toxic substances, are considered too. Despite the fact that in some cases such compounds cannot give a completely flame-resistant product, thanks to their use it is possible to significantly reduce the content of other additives that adversely affect the heat and mechanical properties, and, thereby, obtain durable, heat-resistant, and flame-resistant compositionswhich can be used as aircraft interior materials.

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5.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-49-57
УДК 678.8
Valueva M.I., Kolobkov A.S., Malakhovskiy S.S.
ULTRA-HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE: MARKET, PROPERTIES, DIRECTIONS OF APPLICATION (review)

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a promising material with a wide range of functional properties and is used today in many industries to solve various problems. The leaders in the global market for UHMWPE products, commercially producing high-quality UHMWPE for various applications, are companies from the Netherlands, USA, Japan, Brazil, Germany, which have branches in many countries of the world, including Europe, Asia-Pacific region, North American, Latin America. There is an increase in the scale of production of this material, in particular, in China.

For the period until 2021, the average annual growth rate of the UHMWPE market is projected to be 9.9%, and the market volume will reach $ 2.16 billion. Given the growing demand for special materials in areas such as medicine, automotive, consumer goods, in 2025 UHMWPE production capacity can reach up to 600–650 thousand tons/year. Demand for UHMWPE products is growing dynamically. For example, by 2025, demand for UHMWPE fiber is forecasted to grow from 70 to 200 thousand tons.

UHMWPE was first synthesized in Europe in the 1950s and 1960s. In Russia, the first pilot plant for the production of UHMWPE appeared in 1998, the direction was developed and today, taking into account international experience, further work in this area seems promising.

Research in the field of UHMWPE is carried out today all over the world, in connection with which the monitoring and analysis of scientific and technical literature, as well as the information presented on the websites of manufacturers of UHMWPE to familiarize themselves with advanced world achievements, determine the possibilities of using this material and is relevant promising areas of work.

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6.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-58-65
УДК 666.7
Lebedeva Yu.E., Shchegoleva N.E., Chaynikova A.S., Voronov V.A., Shavnev A.A.
OBTAINING THE PROTOTYPE OF NOT COOLED NOZZLE TURBINE BLADE FROM CERAMIC COMPOSITE MATERIAL

Now cooling of rotor blades of the turbine and the nozzle device leads to essential consumption of air that considerably reduces completeness of fuel burning directly in combustion tube of the gas turbine engine (GTD) and, therefore, worsens draft and efficiency of the engine. Therefore attracts attention accent shift in application of constructional high-temperature materials from metal to the nonmetallic. The serial hot strength alloys applied now to manufacturing of nozzle blades of turbines, cannot be long are used at temperatures over 1200 °C. High specific weight of metal alloys (it is higher than 8 g/cm3) decrease in mechanical properties at raised (600–900 °C) temperatures more than twice significantly reduce efficiency and economic profitability of their application.

In turn ceramic materials and composites on their basis have no alternative in the conditions of long influence of temperature in the oxidizing environment above 1200°С, possess high erosion resistance. Development of Sophisticated products on the basis of ceramic composite materials is complex and non-trivial challenge. In this regard development of new materials and technological approaches of creation of elements of designs of the gas turbine engine from ceramic composite materials, such as not cooled nozzle blades is actual.

Together with ODK-Klimov the design of prototype of not cooled nozzle turbine blade from the ceramic composite material, providing level of temperature of gas in front of the nozzle device of the perspective helicopter engine to 1500 °C is developed.

Not cooled nozzle turbine blade prototype from ceramic composite material (CCM) of SiC–SiCw–B4C–AlN system was obtained by the method of spark plasma sintering. The received prototype com

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7.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-66-73
УДК 678.747.2
Evdokimov A.A., Gulyaev I.N., Nacharkina A.V.
INVESTIGATION OF THE PHYSICOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF VOLUME-REINFORCED CARBON FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC

Existing modern autoclave-free methods for producing PCMs allow to obtain products with high physical and mechanical characteristics used in various fields of technology. These methods are distinguished by the low cost of products obtained from PCM due to the absence of the need to purchase and subsequently maintain expensive equipment. A further step towards reducing the cost of finished products from PCM can be the creation of a technology that allows to increase the degree of its integrity, that is, to replace an assembly unit made of several separate parts with one single structure made in one molding cycle. The use of a volume-reinforced preform as a filler in the production of PCM makes it possible to produce a single complex structure of the required geometry from carbon or glass filler, which increases the degree of structural integrity as a whole. This, in turn, eliminates such lengthy operations in the manufacture of PCM products as cutting and laying out the filler while ensuring the maximum accuracy of the required geometric parameters and the orientation of the fibers in the preform, which almost completely eliminates the human factor and leads to a reduction in the cost of finished products.

The physicomechanical characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced plastic based on a body-reinforced orthogonal preform of weaving from a carbon wisps SYT55S-12K and high-temperature powder phthalonitrile polymer resin BCN-31 (VKU-38TP) intended for the manufacture of blade elements of a centrifugal compressor impeller with operating temperatures up to 300 ° C for a promising helicopter engine. A comparison of the physicomechanical characteristics of carbon fiber grade VKU-38TP with a similar material - carbon fiber, made on the basis of equal-strength carbon fabric UT-900-I and polymer resin VSN-31 (VKU-38TR).

Knowing the properties of materials allows you&

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8.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-74-81
УДК 620.1:667.621
Veshkin E.A, Semenychev V.V., Postnov V.I., Krasheninnikova E.V.
RESEARCH OF THE GEOMETRIC SECTION FOR SCLEROMETRIC FURNISH SECTIONS OBTAINED ON THE CURED BINDING EDT-69N AT DIFFERENT LOAD LEVELS FOR INDUCTOR

In this work, we studied plastic samples from a binder EDT-69N, cured at various temperature-time regimes, while the temperature of molding of the samples was 100, 110, and 150 °С. To assess the properties of the obtained samples, we studied the microhardness values on the front surface of the samples and on their transverse sections, and also used sclerometry methods in the range of loads on the sclerometer indenter from 2б5 to 30 N. The performed studies showed that the value microhardness and sclerometric characteristics such as the width and depth of the grooves are very sensitive parameters to the technological modes of curing of the binder, which made it possible to identify a number of patterns of change in the values of m hardness and sclerometric characteristics of plastic associated with curing modes of samples. Thus, it was established that the microhardness of the front surface of the samples increases with the temperature of their molding: an increase in the temperature of molding of samples from 100 to 150 °C leads to an increase in the microhardness from 166 to 221 MPa. The width and depth of sclerometric grooves also respond to the state of the surface of the samples: the higher the molding temperature of the plastic, and hence the magnitude of its microhardness, the greater the decrease in the width and depth of the formed grooves.

The effect of plastic deformation caused by the application of sclerometric grooves on the microhardness values determined on transverse sections in the zones of groove formation was studied. It was found that in the areas of the sample not subject to deformation and molded according to the regime Т=100 °С, τ=158 min, the microhardness of the plastic was 171 MPa, directly under the groove obtained with an indenter load of 2 kg (20 N), the microhardness was about 195 MPa, and under the groove obtained with a load of 3 kg (30 N), i

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9.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-82-93
УДК 678.8
Donetskiy K.I., Bystrikova D.V., Karavaev R.Y., Timoshkov P.N.
APPLICATION OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR CREATION OF ELEMENTS OF TRANSMISSIONS OF AVIATION ENGINEERING (review)

The widespread use of PCM in the aircraft industry did not bypass helicopter technology. The active use of such materials by many leaders in helicopter engineering is widespread practice and leads to a decrease in the weight of the structure and a decrease in their cost.
Transmission shafts, and in particular its tubular element, is also an area of development and use of polymer composite materials. In world practice, many companies are actively developing such products: In the United States, Boeing Company is developing materials and technologies for creating PCM transmission elements; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, Bell Helicopter Textron Inc., CCDI Composites Inc., Lawrie Technology Inc., Hamilton Sundstrand Corp. and a number of other companies. In Europe, the development of the British company Crompton Technology, the French company SKF Aerospace France, the German and French divisions of Airbus Helicopters, Rolls Royce and others are devoted to this topic. Companies in the Asian region (primarily Japanese and Chinese) also take part in these developments, for example, Aircelle Sa, Guizhou Aerospace Fenghua Prec Equipment Co Ltd, Shenzhen Qike Intelligent Tech Co Ltd, Foshan Shenfeng Aviation Tech Co Ltd, Hitachi LTD. The main technologies used to produce transmission shafts are:

- laying up products from prepregs with subsequent molding,

- winding the reinforcing filler on the mandrel, followed by curing in the furnace,

- pressure impregnation of dry reinforcing fillers (including woven preforms) in a rigid mold using low-viscosity binders.

Improving the strength characteristics of the product is ensured both by choosing reinforcement schemes and varying the angles of laying of the reinforcing filler in the manufacture of woven preforms, through the use of elasto

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10.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-94-101
УДК 629.7.023.222
Kondrashov E.K., Naidenov N.D.
EROSION-RESISTANT PAINT AND VARNISH COATINGS FOR AVIATION PURPOSES Part 2. Elastomeric erosion resistant radio-transparent coatings (review)

In the first part of the article the results of studies in the field of erosion-resistant coatings based on epoxy (enamel EP-586 and EP-5236) and polyurethane (VE-62) enamels were considered and it was shown that their erosion resistance depends not only on their strength and elongation, but also on their visco-elastic properties and the properties of fillers.

In the second part of the article the results of research on the development of elastomeric radio-transparent coatings for protection from erosion destruction of antenna fairings made of fiberglass are considered, since it is known from the experience of operation of foreign aviation equipment that elastomeric coatings have a higher erosion resistance than epoxy.

Abroad developed erosion-resistant radio-transparent coating only gray based on polyurethane rubber. However, some aircraft types require white elastomeric coatings. Such elastomeric coating white color was developed on the basis of chlorosulfonated polyethylene.

This was made possible by the use of methylsilazane as a vulcanizing agent. This has been proven by comparative tests on the resistance of the proposed formulations and compositions based on chlorosulphonated polyethylene.

Developed as a result of these studies, the enamel HP-5184 has insufficient adhesion to fiberglass, which required the development of a special soil based on chlorosulfated polyethylene. This primer HP-0206 was developed as a result of research to determine the composition of the solvent mixture, which allowed to combine 70% chlorosulfated polyethylene with 30% epoxy resin.

To eliminate defects in the surface of fiberglass fairings were developed putty CP-0064 based on chlorosulfated polyethylene and epoxy EP-0065. A distinctive feature of these putties is the&

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11.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-102-110
УДК 620.1:699.81
Barbotko S.L., Volnyj O.S., Bochenkov M.M.
IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF GAS PERMEABILITY OF THREE-LAYERED CORE PANEL ON HEAT RELEASE

Due to the successful combination of a number of characteristics (such as weight, strength, rigidity, heat and sound insulating characteristics) in the interior decoration of an aircraft, three-layer panels that consist of skins, as a rule, made of several layers of fiberglass and aggregate, usually sotoplast are widely used.

One of the most important requirements for materials used in construction or decoration is their compliance with fire safety standards. With the development of materials manufacturing technologies and the improvement of aircraft models, there appeared to be a gradual tightening of fire safety requirements for structural elements and materials used in construction. Currently, the most stringent requirements are imposed on the finishing materials for passenger cabins of large transport aircrafts (paragraph 25.853 of aviation standards AS 25). In particular, the panels of the walls, ceiling and partitions of the passenger compartments, along with the fulfillment of combustibility and smoke generation restrictions, should also have low heat dissipation (maximum intensity and the total amount of heat released during the first 2 minutes of the test).

In this paper, we analyze the kinetics of the heat release during combustion of typical three-layer honeycomb panels and show that the heat release schedule, as a rule, has two pronounced heat release maxima associated with the burning of the face skin with a decorative coating and the combustion of thermal degradation products emerging from the inner layers of the aggregate. A hypothesis was made that increasing the gas permeability of the skin and / or filler of the three-layer panel can provide a smoother exit of combustible products from the internal volume of the structural element, which in turn will affect the magnitude of the second maximum heat release. The research conducted confirmed this&

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12.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-3-111-118
УДК 620.179:624.147
Makhsidov V.V., Smirnov O.I., Razomasov N.D., Razomasova T.S., Nuzhny G.A.
STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING OF NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL STRUCTURES BASED ON ICE (review)

Ice is a good base material for a number of structures in Arctic, especially for large structures (e. g. runway, road and etc.). However, sea or fresh ice as structural material have not enough strength. Therefor, reinforcing and modification and on the other hand development new methods and improve existents one monitoring ways for ice are still investigating.

Due to of Arctic’s size, firstly methods for wide region monitoring and secondly local methods (structural health monitoring) are investigated. Existent structural health monitoring methods for construction based on ice one can divided into five groups: radar and based on optic; stress-strain state; ultrasonic; acoustic emission; electromagnetic emission. Cutting edge of science and technology in case of fibre optic sensors combine stress-strain state, ultrasonic and acoustic emission evaluation are allowed.

For huge structures firstly should apply radar methods or based on foto data analysis and local methods of monitoring. Among the local methods of monitoring one should note structural health monitoring based on acoustic emission and stress-strain state, that is very useful for metallic and composite structures. At the same time, applying of fibre optic sensors (FBG and etc.) are perspective. Fibre optic sensor combine in a whole fibre many points of control and apply same sensor for acoustic emission and stress-strain state are allowed.

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