Archive - Электронный научный журнал "ТРУДЫ ВИАМ"



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1. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-3-10
УДК 620.187:669.017.165
Aslanyan G.G., Sukhov D.I., Mazalov P.B., Sulyanova E.A.

However, despite the problems arising at synthesis of nickel hot strength alloys, the most perspective alternative of SLS is the heat resisting cobalt alloys which have already found application abroad. To VIAM Federal State Unitary Enterprise there is development of domestic cobalt-based alloy, whose high complex of properties will be provided at the expense of its receiving by SLS method.

In the article materials and methods of preparation and research of the received samples are described. Type of test pieces on long durability the subsequent their tests were made according to GOST, as well as. The scheme of creation of model of preparation is for descriptive reasons provided.

In the main part of article results of the carried-out tests are described. Photos of breaks are provided. It is shown that for all samples viscous nature of destruction is observed, however, the quantity of time depends on growth orientation. The theory of the mechanism of destruction is provided. Also it is described researches of microstructure of samples near break for more detailed studying of nature of destruction.

In the conclusion conclusions about nature of destruction depending on growth orientation are collected. Comparison of models of multidirectional growth has shown that in the samples synthesized in the vertical direction, there are considerable pulling stresses. This phenomenon speaks level-by-level nature of cultivation of samples. The shrinkable phenomena cause formation of tension on growing axis in each subsequent coat, causing tension, comparable with small loading.

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2. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-11-20
УДК 621.791.14
Bakradze M.M., Panteleev M.D., Skupov A.A., Belozor V.E., Ponomarev P.A.

In order to optimize the mechanical characteristics of weld joints of high-strength aluminum-lithium alloys V-1461 and V-1469, performed by friction stir welding (FSW), the experiment was planned.

The main parameters of the FSW are the tool rotation speed (ω, rpm), tool linear motion speed (welding speed ν, mm/min). The listed parameters determine the conditions of welding zone friction heating and affect on the structural and phase state of the weld and heat-affected zone, which determines the level of mechanical properties of the joints.

Mathematical (regression) models have been developed by the use of modern computing systems for the dependences of the joints strength and surface roughness in the case of the main technological FSW parameters. The target functions were constructed on the basis of regression analysis by processing the results of a full-factorial experiment. The regression coefficients were calculated from the conditions for ensuring the minimum of the squares sum of the response functions deviations predicted by the model for different points of the studied FSW parameters area to their actual values at these points. Each model was tested for adequacy: the variance of the adequacy and variance of errors were calculated.

The obtained dependences analysis showed that the welding speed has the greatest impact on the roughness of the front surface of welded joints, while the models are less sensitive to changes in the tool rotation speed.

The corresponding function surfaces were constructed and their extremes were determined for the V-1461 and V-1469 alloys, which allow to redict the roughness and strength of the weld joint, with the given mode parameters. The areas of the FSW modes for each of the studied alloys were determined, providing the surface roughness of th

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3. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-21-29
УДК 678.8
Kirin B.S., Lonskii S.L., Petrova G.N., Sorokin A.E.

At the modern level of development of the aviation industry perspective innovative technologies which potential allows to increase at the same time operational properties of materials and to increase their processibility are of particular importance. Its environmental friendliness and wastelessness become also important aspects of production.

Such technologies, as a rule, are based on wide use of the information technologies, the systems of automation and an artificial intelligence allowing to carry out quickly fine tuning of technological process under requirements of the concrete moment and property of new materials.

Article is devoted to development of materials for the 3D press by methods of the selection laser baking (SLS) and layer-by-layer fusing (FDM) on the basis of polyetheretherketones of foreign production.

3D-technologies of the press allow to make aviation details and designs of the difficult geometry for a uniform production cycle with minimum labor costs at the minimum quantity of a wastage.

Results of a research of properties of compositions for processing by SLS and FDM methods on the basis of poliefiefirketon of production of Zypeek (China) of brands 550PF and 330UPF and also production of the Victrex company (England) of brands 90G, 150G, 380G are given in article.

It is established that the studied PEEK production brands of import production can't be efficiently processed by method of the selection laser baking without pre-treatment because of their insufficient flowability. These materials demand a pre-treatment to processing. The semi-finished products received for processing by method of the layer-by-layer direction possess the considerable raznotolshchinnost that speaks about need of perfecting of technology of their manufacture

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4. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-30-37
УДК 678.8
Ilyukhina M.A., Smirnov D.N., Bryk Ya. А.

For sealing materials, including those based on organosilicon and polysulfide low-molecular rubbers obtained by cold vulcanization, it is possible to modify the com­positions with fillers, including those obtained from natural minerals. The aim of the work is to conduct complex tests of sealing materials based on silicone and polysulfide (thiokol) rubbers containing functional fillers obtained from natural minerals, as well as to establish the possibility of modifying sealants with these types of fillers.

As a promising filler for sealing materials, specially prepared fillers of natural origin should be noted. As such a material, diatomite is of particular interest, which is used in various industries, including the chemical one.

In the present work, compositions similar in composition to serial siloxane com­pounds and sealants of the type «VIKSINT» and polysulfide sealants were studied, where the filler in the composition of compounds and sealants was completely replaced by diatomite.

As a result of the work performed, it was established that the time of viability of the experimental compositions of siloxane sealants filled with diatomite meets the requirements for working with compounds and sealants; However, it should be noted that serial materials have a greater variation in viability time, which is important when applying these materials on surfaces with a large area.

The mechanical properties of the vulcanizates of prototypes filled with diatomite in the initial state are at a high level and meet the requirements for the level of conditional strength, relative elongation, hardness and density imposed on compounds and sealants of the type «VIKSINT».

A decrease in the density of vulcanizates of prototypes filled with&

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5. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-38-47
УДК 678.8
Evdokimov A.A., Gulyaev I.N., Zelenina I.V.

Existing modern non-autoclave technologies allow to obtain PCM with high physico-mechanical characteristics. The use of these relatively inexpensive vacuum PCM molding methods for the production of various structural components was made possible through the development of new fibrous fillers, preforms based on them and the creation of binders with the required technological characteristics. To reduce costs in the manufacture of products from PCM, it is necessary to increase the degree of integrity of the design to be created, that is, to replace the assembly unit manufactured from several separate parts with a single structure that is made of composite materials in one molding. The use of volume-reinforced preforms as a filler contributes to the solution of this problem.

The article discusses carbon-fiber plastic based on the volume-reinforced preform and high-temperature powder phthalonitrile binder brand VSN-31, intended for the manufacture of blade elements of the impeller of a centrifugal compressor (RCCC) with an operating temperature of up to 300 ° C for a promising high-speed helicopter engine. The dependence of the physicomechanical properties of carbon plastic on the type of weaving of fibers in the preform is considered. The preforms used for the manufacture of carbon plastic have an orthogonal and satin weaving structure. On the basis of the studied micrographs of samples of carbon plastic and carbon monofilament, conclusions have been made regarding the most probable causes of defects in carbon plastic.

Knowledge of the properties of such materials in the design of samples of parts and assemblies from PCM allows you to optimize the production of products and assemblies with the required parameters, as well as reduce the weight of parts and assemblies by up to 30% compared to the metal structures used and the labor intensity of manufacturing by 1.

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6. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-48-56
УДК 678.8
Rackmatullin A. А., Postnov V.I., Strelnikov S.V.

To carry out the process of forming items from PCM on the heated tooling in UNTC VIAM were developed automated control systems that include specially designed software.

The purpose of forming components from PCM under a vacuum bag on the heated equipment is to obtain large components of complex shape without the use of expensive autoclave and reduce energy costs.

One of the most important components of such systems is software. The purpose of this article is to present the experience of creating control programs and highlight some key points of development.

At the initial stage of development of the control program it is necessary to form requirements for the program. All requirements can be divided into two large groups: technological requirements and hardware support requirements.

One of the features of PCM forming process control systems is that it is required to connect different sensors to control process parameters and PCM components.

We consider the types of sensors that are connected to the system and some interesting features of the use of information from sensors to control and regulate the forming process. For example, having the ability to measure and adjust the value of the vacuum pressure during the forming process, it is possible to implement technological methods to improve the properties of PCM at the curing stage, including pulsed vacuum mode. Capacitive sensors allow you to determine the value of the dielectric constant, which is used to control the degree of curing of components from PCM. Ultrasonic sensors can be integrated into technological forms, allowing to directly determine with the help of known ratios viscoelastic characteristics.

The use of the developed systems for the process of formin

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7. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-57-66
УДК 678.8
Ivanov M.S., Veshkin E.A, Satdinov R.A., Donskih I.N.

Researches on development of coated textile material for manufacturing of flexible air conditioning ducts of flight vehicles within which the main requirements to developed coated textile material are defined are conducted, textile of basis and components of polymer coating are chosen, technological modes of manufacturing of coated textile material are fulfilled. The conducted researches have shown that the best complex of properties has the coated textile material made on the basis of E1-100 fiber glass textile with bilateral filled fluoropolymer covering. Experimental batches of coated textile material on production equipment are made, the VRT-12 brand is appropriated to material. Research of the main properties of experimental batches of the material VRT-12 has shown compliance to qualifying standards on the weight of 1 m2, durability, flammability, to tightness and moisture absorption: tensile strength and elongation at gap on basis/weft of 1506/1030 N and 4,0/4,5% according to, on flammability corresponds to requirements AP-25, the appendix F, p.1, maintains excess pressure of 0,02 MPa, has low moisture absorption of 0,3% in 24 hours. Testing of strength properties, at direct influence of temperatures of-60, +20, +80°C has shown that though to temperature increase of testing there is decrease in durability of material, however it is at high level and corresponds to qualifying standards. Research of ability of material of the VRT-12 brand to a heat sealing is conducted. Research has shown that the mechanism of stratification of samples is adhesive, and durability of welded seam on shift at size throw seam from 10 mm of high strength of material. Therefore the polymer coating of material has provided possibility of heat sealing of material. On the basis of the received results the material is recommended for approbation in design of flexible air conditioning ducts of flight vehicles that will allow to reduc

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8. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-67-75
УДК 667.648.17
Kuznetsova V.A., Emelyanov V.V., Marchenko S.A., Silaeva A.A.

One of important and considerable characteristic for flight vehicles is aerodynamic. To reduce possible losses of speed at the expense of product friction in air space, undertake different measures for improvement of characteristics of surface of the flight vehicle which depend on complexity of its design, and also way of connection of constructional elements. One of materials applied to these purposes are putty materials – the high-filled polymeric systems. Surface irregularities, in metal of product can become concentrators of tension and accumulate the corrosion environment that can lead to deterioration of strength properties of design and finally to product destruction.

Now for elimination of similar defects and prevention of possible destructions by the most perspective material are metal-polymeric compositions. As polymeric basis low-molecular epoxy or epoxy-organic-silicon copolymers are applied. As filler-aluminum powder of spherical form.

In this work authors have conducted research of influence of the sizes of powder and extent of filling on different properties of putty composition.

From the results received during experiments follows that the specific surface of aluminum powder does not make impact on strength and deformation characteristics of free films of metal-polymeric compositions. With increase in the maintenance of aluminum powder in polymeric matrix with 150 to 300 mass parts, irrespective of its specific surface, durability at gap increases, thus discontinuous lengthening’s decrease. On the basis of these results value of the maintenance of aluminum powder at which the most significant increase in durability and insignificant decrease in elasticity is implemented has been chosen.

Other tests carried out for compositions with diffe

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9. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-76-87
УДК 543.456:621.793
Denisova V.S., Lonskii S.L., Kurshev E.V., Malinina G.A.

Currently the modern materials such as heat-resistant nickel alloys based on Ni–Cr, Ni–Co–Cr systems are being created and introduced into the design of new generation aircraft engines. In order to obtain a stable hardened structure, chemical and thermal treatment processes, including nitriding or combined methods, are used. Currently used heat-resistant enamel cannot be used to protect the new alloys, as workable at temperatures not exceeding 1000°C.

For solving the problem of materials science for the creation of more heat-resistant coatings it is necessary to apply the experience of scientific and technical research in the field of creating erosion-resistant thermal control coatings such as EVCh for tile thermal protection of the «Buran». One of the main advantages of these coatings is the firing temperature, almost equal to the operating temperature. To ensure the reduction of the firing temperature (the formation) allows the introduction of additives tetraboride silicon is sufficiently refractory compounds oxidized during heat treatment with the formation of low-melting borosilicate glass. The work investigated the influence of tetraboride of silicon on formation of structure of coatings based on barium-aluminium-silica glasses. The purpose of the work is to identify patterns of formation of the structure of these coatings. The results of the study of the structure formation of reactive coatings indicate the presence of several stages of coating formation: the formation of a macrostructure, accompanied first by the oxidation of tetraboride and the formation of the liquid phase of borosilicate glass, then softening of the matrix glass; the formation of a microstructure containing the phase of the matrix glass, particles of modifying glass and silicon tetraboride with visible at significant increases in the interface. The resulting coatings are composite, and th

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10. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-88-98
УДК 620.178.6:678.8
Ruzakov I.A.

This article analyzes the current methods for determining the impact damage of structural elements made of a polymer composite material based on acoustic non-destructive testing using fiber-optic Bragg gratings. The principles of interaction of Lamb-waves, generated by PZT, with the resonant FBG-wavelength (FBG was integrated into CFRP) are described. Using the shift of the resonant wavelength was shown, it is possible to determine the position and size of the cracks (operation defects) in the composite material.

Continuous assessment of the state of the structural element of the CFRP is an actual and important task, which is solved by developing an embedded control system. Timely detection of defects (cracks) of the design can improve the safety of aviation products. Fiber optic sensors (such as FBGs) are easily integrated into the material, do not require electrical power supply to the measurement point, are interference-free and have low weight and cost.

Verification of the conformity of the design from CFRP with the established requirements is currently being carried out by non-destructive testing. Special mention should be made of the acoustic control method. It was noted that controlled acoustic waves (Lamb-waves) with propagation vectors parallel to the surface of material with a defect have a smaller amplitude than in material without a defect (reflection waves pulled out by cracks reduce the amplitude of the original waves).

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11. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-99-107
УДК 667.621
Starostina I.V., Petrova A.P., Shevchenko Yu.N., Shishimirov M.V.

Polymeric composite materials (PCM) have found broad application in the different industries of mechanical engineering as their use allows to improve significantly characteristics of machines and different designs. Into structure of PKM enter fibrous filler and binding which connects among themselves separate elements of filler in uniform material.

Often in a short form composite materials with thermoflexible matrix designate KTM. Application thermoflexible binding as a part of KTM has demanded carrying out their strict control. In this regard in article control methods of thermoflexible matrixes for KTM are provided.

The thermoflexible binding have the linear or branched-out structure unlike thermosetting, having only the three-dimensional sewed structure. Thermoflexible materials when heating are capable to pass reversibly in high-elastic or to plastic condition. Therefore, some methods used for control of their properties, can differ from control of the thermosetting binding.

The main test methods of thermoflexible materials are given in this article, including used as binding for PCM.

Methods definitions of density, softening temperature, flowability rasplava, impact strength on the Sharpie, durability are given at stretching, the adhesive durability of communication between fiber and the thermoflexible binding. Device examples with the heating bath filled with liquid, for determination of softening temperature on Vick in the liquid environment, the extrusion plastometer are shown.

In recent years the volume of use of polymeric materials has increased in interior of flight vehicles. In this regard have entered more rigid requirements to characteristics of fire safety of these materials which include such indicators as combustibility, dymoobrazovaniy

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12. 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-4-108-120
УДК 699.81:629.7.042.2
Barbotko S.L., Volnyj O.S., Postnov V.I., Shurkova E.N.

Studies have been carried out on the effect of the woven filler laying pattern (equal fiberglass fabric T‑64) on the fire hazard characteristics of fiberglass on the phenol formaldehyde binder. The effect of unidirectional [0], orthotropic [0/90] or [±45] and quasi-isotropic [0/-45/90/+45] reinforcement structures on the combustibility characteristics (burning length and residual burning duration), smoke generation (optical density of smoke for 2, 4 minutes and maximum) and heat generation during combustion (maximum intensity of heat release, time to reach maximum intensity and total amount of heat released in the first 2 minutes), determined in accordance with the requirements of aviation standards. Studies have been carried out for fiberglass in the thickness range from 0.65 to 2.5 mm.

The characteristic of smoke generation was not established unambiguous influence of the structure of the reinforcement on the recorded values of smoke optical density.

According to the characteristics of flammability for this material, no influence of the structure of the reinforcement on the length of burning was revealed. The duration of the residual burning of thin samples (up to 1.2 mm) practically does not differ from the layout, for unidirectional samples with a thickness of about 2 mm, compared with other reinforcement structures; a slightly longer duration of residual burning was recorded.

For this material, no effect of the reinforcement structure on the time of occurrence of the maximum intensity of heat release was revealed. Similar to the characteristics of combustibility, the characteristics of heat generation (maximum intensity of heat release and the total amount of heat released during the first two minutes of testing) of thin samples of this material do not differ when the laying pattern is varied, and with a greater t

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