Articles

 


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1.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-3-12
УДК 669.018.44:543.42
Raevskih A.N., Chabina E.B., Petrushin N.V., Filonova E.V.
BOUNDARY BETWEEN SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUBSTRATE AND RECEIVED BY SELECTIVE LASER MELTING ALLOY ZhS32-VI STRUCTURAL AND PHASE CHANGES AFTER HIGH TEMPERATURES AND TENSION INFLUENCE INVESTIGATION

In this paper, the structure and crystallographic features near the «single-crystal substrate-synthesized alloy» boundary in a sample obtained by selective laser melting on a single-crystal substrate with a crystallographic orientation of ZhS32-VI alloy were studied using SEM and EBSD analysis.

The crystallographic orientation of the grains and their structure have been studied in the volume of the synthesized material. The main features of the grains structure with a hereditary crystallographic orientation of ZhS32-VI alloy single-crystal substrate are shown. The morphology, size and orientation of particles γ'- phase in grains with hereditary crystallographic orientation or close to it are similar to reinforcing intermetallic particles of the γ'-phase of a single-crystal substrate, while the visible boundary in the auto epitaxial areas is almost not observed.

The structure in the zones of local misorientations, both in the synthesized part of the sample and in the substrate material near the «single-crystal substrate-synthesized alloy» boundary, was investigated. It is shown that in the zones of local misorientations the degradation of the γ'-phase particles and the carbide phase are observed.

Thus, a more detailed study of the individual phases behavior when exposed to external factors, as well as the distribution of zones with different levels of micro stresses in the material and the study of structural and phase features in the identified areas is necessary to establish the defect formation causes and mechanisms, which later predict the nucleation microcracks during operation parts. Understanding the evolution of the structure and its relationship with the material performance will allow assessing th

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2.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-13-20
УДК 678.6
Prokopova L.A., Golovina E.Yu.
ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES STABILITY OF TYPE I EPOXY RESINS AFTER THE WARRANTY PERIOD EXPIRATION

By Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Electrons Back Scattering Diffraction (EBSD) means sample structure in transitional area between single-crystal ZhS32-VI alloy substrate with crystallographic orientation and alloy ZhS32-VI, received on the same substrate by selective laser melting, after traction tests at temperature 1100°С is investigated. Structural changes in local subgrains disorientation sites, caused by microtension raised level are established.

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3.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-21-30
УДК 678.4
Chaykun A.М., Venediktova M.A., Bryk Ya. А.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE COMPOUNDING OF RUBBER EXTREMELY HIGH HEAT RESISTANCE WITH TEMPERATURE RANGE OF EXPLOITATION FROM THE -60 TO +500°С

The article summarizes the results of research on the development of a rubber compound formulation of extremely high heat resistance of low flammability and, on the basis of this, made the choice and justification of the optimal technology of parts from it. A literature search was carried out and the main factors for choosing a rubber – a high molecular weight organosilicon block copolymer of a staircase – were explained. The main component composition of rubber was determined on the basis of a high molecular weight silicone organosilicon block copolymer of a staircase. The optimal content is explained and the choice of the type of the main ingredients for rubber of extremely high heat resistance is justified. Comprehensive studies of rubber on the basis of a high molecular weight silicone organosilicon block copolymer of a staircase have been carried out for a wide range of indicators under conditions simulating the effect of operating factors. In addition, it was found that rubber, along with an improved complex of elastic-deformation characteristics, is additionally self-extinguishing. The result is achieved without additional introduction of special modifiers (flame retardants) into the composition. This is explained by the ladder structure of the polymer matrix and the active formation of coke when exposed to high temperatures. Experiments confirmed the possibility of operating parts from the developed rubber at temperatures of 350°C for a long time and at 500°C for a short time. The analysis of various types of sealing parts was carried out and the main options for using rubber BP-38M in sealing technology were disassembled. A technology has been developed for molding sealing products of a simple configuration made of rubber BP-38M, taking into account the revealed features of its structure and properties. The analysis of the range of sealing parts has been carried out and the optimal use of rubber BP-38M in&

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4.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-31-39
УДК 678.072, 678.078
Kudryavtseva A.N., Tkachuk A.I., Grigoreva K.N., Gurevich Y.M.
THE USE OF EPOXY RESIN SYSTEM VSE-30, PROCESSED BY THE INFUSION TECHNOLOGY, FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF LOW AND MEDIUM LOADED STRUCTURAL POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS

Currently, non-autoclaving injection technologies are widely used in the global industry: Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM).

For this purpose, for the manufacture of low- and medium-loaded constructional parts, including aircraft parts made of polymer composite materials by the method of vacuum infusion, an epoxy resin VSE-30 was developed by vacuum infusion, which is characterized by a combination of high strength, thermomechanical and technological properties. The developed epoxy resin VSE-30 is a two-component system: the epoxy component (part A), the curing system (part B). The using of a two-component system can significantly increase the storage time of the epoxy resin and reduce the cost of transporting and storing it until using by eliminating of costs of using refrigeration.

The paper presents studies of technological viability, viscosity, glass transition temperature and elastic-strength characteristics of the epoxy resin VSE-30. The temperature and curing mode of the epoxy resin were selected in different modes. The recommended mode is considered curing to solid form at room temperature, and then postcuring at 120 ° C until the desired characteristics are achieved, and if necessary, it is possible to decrease the curing temperature of the epoxy resin to 80 ° C, but without curing at room temperature step.

The obtained results can significantly reduce the processing time, which contributes to energy savings, and also corresponds to the principles of "green chemistry". With lowering the final curing temperature, the epoxy resin is applicable in non-loaded parts, and also when high operating temperature of materials is not required. Also epoxy resin VSE-30 is useful in performing various technological tasks.

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5.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-40-46
УДК 669.715
Antipov V.V., Konovalov A.N., Serebrennikova N.Yu., Somov A.V., Nefedova Yu.N.
INFLUENCE OF STRUCTURE ON FIRE RESISTANCE AND FIREPROOF FMLS SIAL-TYPE AND POSSIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF DATA OF MATERIALS IN AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY

Main structure factors affecting a fire resistance of GLARE are investigated and recommendations to improve flame resistance of this material are stated. It is shown that GLARE`s could be used instead of conventional materials, including fire resistant materials on the example of engine cowling manufacture by means of autoclave forming.

Samples of GLAREs made with reinforcing glass fiber (unidirectional and equal in strength) and roving. Prepregs contains from 24 up to 55 mass % of binder. Fiberglass samples were made with different thickness because of two-, three of four layer packing of prepreg.

VIAM engineers developed testing procedure considering requirements of national aviation rules and foreign ISO 2685 standard.

As a result of tests it was confirmed that all of the investigated samples are fireproof. Main factors affecting a time of material resistance to combustion were found: prepreg type and number of prepreg layers. Best results were shown by four-layer samples made with roving. Also it was found that a direction of glass fiber reinforcement and quantity of binder in fiberglass doesn`t affect GLARE`s fire resistance. In addition, a number of tested fiberglass structures shown a burning-out time on a level more than a half of an hour. It is twice more than required by specification documents in a part of fire resistance of aviation materials.

A possibility of GLARE usage for manufacture of details requiring a fire resistance through the example of manufacture of engine cowling prototype of aircraft.

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6.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-47-54
УДК 678.8
Kolobkov A.S., Malakhovskiy S.S.
SELF-HEALING COMPOSITE MATERIALS (review)

The article is devoted to advanced polymer composite materials, which capable to independently recover own damaged structure of polymer matrix or via ultraviolet radiation, hH change, temperature, pressure or oxygen. As a literature sources are provided foreign researches from USA, Iran, China, Singapore and Great Britain.

There are developed different approaches to modification of matrix on present day, but self-healing composite materials have a row of advantages, which authors give in this article. Application the principe of self-healing can increase life time of product avoiding outside intervention. Authors describe methods for increasing service life and efficiency of polymer composite materials based on thermoset matrix whith healing agents and releasing through growth the crack or another damages cured polymer matrix and reversible self-regulation chemical bonds in Diels-Alder reaction. Also classification of self-healing composite materials are provided.

Based on the reviewed material authors conclude, that application and introduction of self-healing composite materials in various industries can improve the service life and efficiency of products based on thermoset matrix.

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7.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-55-63
УДК 678.8
Donetskiy K.I., Karavaev R.Y., Raskutin A.E., Dun V.A.
CARBON FIBERS COMPOSITE MATERIAL ON THE BASIS OF VOLUME REINFORCING TRIAX BRAIDING PREFORMES

In different industries when manufacturing products from polymeric composite materials (PCM) reinforcing braiding preformes use even more often. The leading foreign companies, such as Boeing, Airbus, General Electric Aircraft Engines, Snecma and some other have implemented such materials in production of products as for space, and civil products. Now these technologies are used for manufacturing of stringer, frames, load-carrying structures of aviation engineering, blades of screws, elements of fuselage, the chassis, transmissions, drafts of management and many other.

Use such preform provides the increased impact resistance of material and resistance to damages, possibility of implementation of automation of production, and also high speed and profitability of process manufacturing of designs.

In work it is considered carbon fibers composite material on the basis of braided preforms and its properties, possibility of application of material is evaluated when manufacturing designs, including working in the conditions of the increased outside hydrostatic pressure. Physicomechanical properties of material, and also tightness of material are investigated at influence of internal air and outside hydrostatic pressure.

The knowledge of properties of such materials at design of samples of equipment allows to optimize release of products with necessary parameters.

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8.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-64-73
УДК 66.017
Zagora A.G., Kondrashov S.V., Antyufeeva N.V., Pykhtin A.A.
RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL MODES OF PRODUCTION OF EPOXY NANOCOMPOSITES WITH CARBON NANOTUBES ON THEIR HEAT RESISTANCE

One of ways of change of properties of polymers and the polymeric composite materials (PCM) is nanomodifying. Enter various nanodimensional additives which influence formation of structure of material into a polymeric matrix. Nanomodifying allows to receive the hybrid polymeric composite materials (HPCM) with the properties increased in comparison with initial PCM.

Now in scientific literature influence of CNT (carbon nanotubes) on heat resistance and reactionary ability of epoxy compositions in the conditions of achievement of almost full conversion of functional groups is insufficiently investigated.

In this work such technological mode of hardening which provided almost full conversion of epoxy groups was chosen. Therefore, temperature change of vitrification of the received epoxynanocomposites is explained by exclusively nano-level modification carbon nanotubes.

Authors developed various laboratory ways of receiving the epoxynanocomposites modified by non-functional multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs).

In work thermoanalytical and microstructural researches of the modified compositions and epoxynanocomposites were conducted.

It is shown that non-functional MWCNTs have no considerable impact on temperature parameters of chemical reaction of hardening of epoxy composition and size of thermal effect.

It is established that modifying of epoxy compositions non-functional MWCNTs at almost full hardening leads to vitrification temperature increase.

Influence of various technological ways of receiving an epoxynanocomposite on its heat resistance is defined. It is established that use of the three-roll mixer plays a key role at production of epoxynanocomposites. Temperature of vitrific

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9.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-74-91
УДК 677.523
Shestakov A.M., Khaskov M.A., Sorokin O.Ju.
ORGANOSILICON POLYMER COMPOUNDS BASED INORGANIC FIBERS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE COMPOSITE MATERIALS (review)

Among the huge variety of composite materials developed to date, it is necessary to single out a class of materials consisting of a ceramic matrix reinforced with high-strength (continuous or discrete) inorganic fibers. Such materials combine a complex of various properties and can be used as structural materials for heat-loaded aircraft parts.

This review is devoted to the consideration of the main types of organosilicon polymers based silicon carbide fibers (SiC-fibers), produced abroad.

It is shown that at present the entire range of SiC-fibers can be divided into three main groups according to their oxygen content and the ratio of C/Si atoms. The fibers of the first group were developed in the 1980s, contain up to 11 % oxygen and significantly lose their strength at temperatures above 1300°C. The maximum operating temperature of such fibers is 1100°C.

The oxygen content in the fibers of the second group is less than 1%, they retain their strength to a temperature of 1500°C, however, the creep resistance of such fibers decreases even at a temperature of 1150°C due to the presence of carbon in their structure.

The third group includes stoichiometric SiC-fibers. The heat resistance and creep resistance of these fibers are significantly improved. Such fibers maintain high creep resistance up to a temperature of 1400°C. In terms of their physical and mechanical properties, stoichiometric SiC-fibers meet the basic requirements necessary for their use in high-temperature composites of structural purpose.

Thus, the prospects for the development of SiC-fibers are associated with a further decrease in the oxygen content in their structure, the preservation of the C/Si ratio in terms of fiber volume, and modification of the fiber surface.&a

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10.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-92-104
УДК 678.067.5
Melnikov D.A., Petrova A.P., Gromova A.A., Sokolov I.I., Raskutin A.E.
THE CALCULATION OF THE RATIO OF THE COMPONENTS OF THE PREPREG STAMPS VPS-53/120, DETERMINATION OF PHYSICO-MECHANICAL AND OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRP

Process of selection of ratio of components of prepreg is described. The data on electrochemical corrosion in the contact zone of «metal–carbon» fiber and describes a method of protection against contact corrosion by isolating the carbon-plastic metal layer prepreg GRP. The initial components of prepreg GRP VPS-53/120, designed to prevent contact corrosion between metal and carbon fiber, were selected. Two methods for calculating the surface density of the binder and prepreg are described. The ranges of permissible dispersion of the surface densities of the binder and prepreg film are calculated taking into account the dispersion of the surface density of GRP and the selected range of the binder content in the prepreg. The actual values of the prepreg characteristics of the VPS-53/120 brand are determined and their statistical analysis is carried out, the high convergence of the actual values with the calculated ones is shown. Physical-mechanical and operational characteristics of GRP of the VPS-53/120 brand are defined.

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11.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-105-114
УДК 678.8
Minibaev M.I., Raskutin A.E., Goncharov V.A.
PECULIARITIES OF TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTION SPECIMENS OF PCM ON CNC MACHINES (review)

The polymer composite materials industry is in constant development, however, PCM processing technologies must be developed, and the effects of mechanical processing on the properties of the material after processing should be investigated. Manufacturers of tools offer special cutters, differing in the materials from which they are made, geometry, grinding angles, etc. It is necessary to conduct research for each brand of material in order to designate the optimal cutting mode. The design of the equipment should provide reliable protection of personnel and take into account the properties formed during the processing of chips.

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12.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2019-0-1-115-124
УДК 620.1:669.295
Ospennikova O.G., Naprienko S.A., Avtaev V.V.
INFLUENCE OF SEA WATER ON FATIGUE LIMIT OF ALLOY VT3-1 AT DIFFERENT LOAD RATIO

Within the framework of the work, the design of the sample was developed, which allows testing on HCF at different values of the load ratio without loss of stability including cyclic compression.

To determine the stresses acting on the sample during cyclic tests from the side opposite to the stress concentrator, a step-by-step static loading of the sample with a strain gage in the range of elastic deformations was carried out. The finite element method through ANSYS R17.2 it was software calculated of operating in the stress concentrator σmax and σmin in the cycle of loading.

The samples of VT3-1 titanium alloy were tested for the fatigue limit on the basis of N=106 cycles at a loading frequency of 100 Hz by STO 1-595-17-467-2015. The tests were carried out under symmetrical loading cycle R = -1 under cyclic stretching conditions at R = 0; 0,3; 0,5 and cyclic compression at R = ∞; 3, both in air and in sea water. Individual containers for each sample were used in sea water tests.

The results show that sea water leads to an increase in the fatigue limit of samples from titanium alloy VT3-1 with a concentrator of radius 1 mm in the range of load cycle asymmetries +0.5≤R≤+3.0 (-1 ≤Rnorm≤1.5).

The increase of fatigue cracks in the conditions of cyclic compression is accompanied by the formation of a trickle relief with longitudinal folds.

On the surface of the facet relief of samples tested in air, there are signs of plastic deformation, while the facets on the fractures of samples tested in sea water have a completely brittle appearance.

For a symmetrical cycles, and for the cyclic stretching the destruction of both environments&

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