Articles

 


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1.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-3-13
УДК 669.15
Krylov S.А., Makarov А.А., Druzhnov M.A.
STUDY OF HIGH-STRENGTH LOW-ALLOY STEEL WITH SUPER-EQUILIBRIUM NITROGEN CONTENT

The relevance of the article is due to the fact that the production of high-strength steels with a super-equilibrium nitrogen concentration by methods of metallurgy under pressure is a pioneer direction for domestic metallurgy. The article discusses issues related to the production of low-alloy high-nitrogen steel 10X3A by the method of electroslag remelting under pressure (ESRM).

The methodological part of the article reflects the main features and parameters of the smelting process, contains a diagram of the installation with a diagram of the electroslag remelting process, an image of the resulting ingot. The data on the chemical composition of the metal of the ingot in its different parts are given.

The work compares the calculated and achieved (0.173 wt. %) Nitrogen concentration. The structure and phase composition of 10Kh3A steel in the cast state and after thermal deformation treatment, incl. using the method of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM method revealed the presence of iron carbides Fe3C in the steel. In this work, an assumption is made about the possible presence of nanosized particles of chromium nitride in steel.

Due to the formation of a martensitic structure, steel 10X3A after quenching and quenching with aging is characterized by high hardness (48 HRC), a high level of strength while maintaining a satisfactory ductility of 10%. Aging increases the yield strength from 1310 to 1500 MPa. For the first time, data on the impact toughness of 10Kh3A steel obtained on the DEShP-0.1 unit are presented. After quenching, it decreases to 66 J/cm2, and after aging – to 30 J/cm2. Fractographic analysis did not reveal any structural features responsible for a decrease in impact strength.

For the first time for steel 10Kh3A, studies of th

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2.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-14-22
УДК 669.017.165:669.295
Zavodov A.V., Medvedev P.N., Nochovnaya N.A.
FORMATION FEATURES OF ADIABATIC SHEAR BANDS DURING HOT COMPRESSION OF VTI-4 ALLOY AND SUBSEQUENT ANNEALING

The work is devoted to the features of the formation of localized deformation bands (LDB) during hot compression of the intermetallic titanium alloy VTI-4 based on the Ti–22Al–25Nb system. Compression was carried out under isothermal conditions at 1010 °C and a rate of 2.5 s-1 to a degree of deformation of 70%. The dimensions of the cylindrical samples were ø10×15 mm. The compressed samples were quenched in water after the end of deformation. During the process of compression, an axial two-component texture of {100}β and {111}β is formed, the initial grains degenerate into deformation bands. The solid solution after hot compression has a low dislocation density as a result of an intense process of dynamic and postdynamic recovery. The grains in the sloping parts of the «cross» of deformation also underwent a significant change in shape, but retained closed observable boundaries.

The resulting condition of the solid solution in the localized deformation bands affects the absence of the recrystallization process during subsequent annealing at 1010 ° C. Annealing for 3 hours at 1010 °C does not remove the texture of the compression and does not lead to the formation of new grains. The broadening of the LDB occurs due to the process of secondary recrystallization with the participation of grains adjacent to the central region. The rest of the classic «cross» deformation is subject to recrystallization. After annealing, already after 30 min, no oblique regions of the «cross» of deformation are observed; the grain throughout the volume, with the exception of the LDB, has an equiaxial shape and the same size. Only two structural features allow one to detect the previously performed hot deformation: the central region of the LDB and the distribution of particles of the α&

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3.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-23-34
УДК 677.53
Farafonov D.P., Serov M.M., Patrushev A.Yu., Leschev N.E., Yaroshenko A.S.
METAL FIBERS FOR NEW AIRCRAFT ENGINE MATERIALS

Within the framework established at FSUE "VIAM" material science directions – «materials from metal fibers» made a number of scientific research, with the aim of improving operational characteristics of gas turbine engines, which resulted in the establishment of several new materials for use in the hot zones of turbine engines. The development of this direction became possible due to the appearance of new progressive methods for obtaining metal-based fibers by drawing from the melt, a type of which is the method of extraction of a hanging drop of melt (EUCR).

D allows using almost any material (refractory, chemically active metals, heat-resistant metals, corrosion-resistant and hard-to-deform steels and alloys) as a raw material for producing fibers. The use of this method of obtaining fibers allowed us to develop a new class of abrasive sealing materials for the flow part of the gas turbine engine, high-temperature sound-absorbing materials based on long fibers, and conduct research in the field of creating fibers for their subsequent use in brush seals.

Evaluation of the performance characteristics of a new class of abrasion-resistant sealing materials based on Fe–Cr–Al–Y system fibers as part of the process engine turbine showed that this class of seals has an increased level of performance.

High-temperature sound-absorbing materials based on long fibers are porous-fibrous metal materials used as a homogeneous filler for sound-absorbing structures. Tests have shown that the combination of properties inherent in these materials is optimal for their use in the sound-absorbing structures of aircraft gas turbine engines.

Search work in the field of creating fibers for their subsequent use in brush seals showed the possibility of using metal fibers of Ni&a

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4.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-35-46
УДК 669.018.292
Panteleev M.D., Sviridov A.V., Skupov A.A., Odintsov N.S.
PERSPECTIVE WELDING TECHNOLOGIES OF ALUMINUM-LITHIUM ALLOY V-1469 APPLIED TO FUSELAGE PANELS

The Al–Cu–Li alloy has a high mechanical properties in combination with low density is a very perspective in appliance of fuselage welded structures. Producing of large welded Al–Cu–Li structures is complicated process due to its low hot cracking resistance and softening during  weld cycle. It is possible to improve performance characteristics by using a new filler materials alloying rare earth metals. Today the most perspective technology for joining Al–Cu–Li alloys is laser welding process. High energy concentration in laser heating spot allows to improve properties of aluminum-lithium alloy welds. It is possible to solve weldability problem due to friction stir welding technology.

The influence of laser repair welds modes investigated with influence at structure, mechanical and resource properties of aluminum-lithium alloy V-1469. It is established that welding speed increasing decrees plasticity and impact strength in reference to non-equilibrium conditions of weld metal crystallization, dendritic structure and grain boundaries substance. The laser repair welds reduce welded joints strength at raising values of plasticity and low-cycle fatigue.

It is investigated that repair welds of friction stir welding should be carried out with the same instrument and welding modes buy only after a complete cooling.

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5.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-47-58
УДК 678.8
Sidorina A.I., Safronov A.M., Kutsevich K.E., Klimenko O.N.
CARBON FABRICS FOR AIRCRAFT PRODUCTS

The article describes the main stages of development of a new production type for FSUE «VIAM» – the production of reinforcing fillers for polymer composite materials by weaving, which was created in 2017 on the basis of the FSUE «VIAM» branch, the Voskresensk experimental and technological center for special materials, in order to reduce dependence on foreign suppliers of carbon fiber fabrics. Information is giver about current nomenclature and main properties of produced fabrics: balanced carbon fiber fabrics with the number of filaments 3K of the brands VTkU-2.200, VTkU-2.200T, VTkU-2.280, unidirectional carbon fiber fabrics with the number of filaments 12K of the brands VTkU-3, VTkU-3.290, balanced carbon fiber fabrics with the number of filaments 12K of the brands VTkU-6, VTkU-7 and hybrid metal-carbon fabrics of the brand VTkU-2.280M. The existing and promising application areas of the developed fabrics and the main strength properties of mass-produced and experimental samples of carbon plastics based on them are shown: carbon fabrics VTkU-2.200 and VTkU-3 are produced and supplied for use in the manufacture of structural parts of the PD-14 propulsion system prepregs of carbon plastics of the brands VKU-39/VTkU-2.200 and VKU-29/VTkU-3. Data demonstrating the suitability of the developed carbon and hybrid fabrics for use as reinforcing fillers for composite materials with a polymer matrix are presented – the article considers the main properties of experimental samples of carbon composites based on fabrics VTkU-2.200T and VTkU-2.280M and various binders. It’s noted that promising areas of application of carbon fabrics with a high surface density of the brands VTkU-6 and  VTkU-7 are the production of composite forming equipment based of them, and unidirectional carbon fabrics of the brands VTkU-3 and VTkU-3.290 – civil construction. Further expansion of the range of manufactured&

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6.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-59-66
УДК 678.747.2
Mishkin S.I., Malakhovskiy S.S., Gunyaeva A.G., Gulyaev I.N.
FEATURES OF DEFINITION THE RESIN CONTENT IN CARBON FIBER REINFORCED PLASTICS BASED ON VARIOUS TYPES OF CARBON FILLERS BY THERMO-OXIDATIVE DESTRUCTION METHOD

The polymeric composite materials (PKM), including CFRP, considered to article, it is multicomponent the material, made of two or more components with different chemical and physical properties, which at their different combination carry out to creation of new materials with unique and unique properties. Basic components CFRP is polymeric matrix (binding) and carbon fibrous reinforcing filler.

The contents binding in cure CFRP depends not only on its initial contents in semi-finished product (prepreg), but more from refining technology prepreg in cure material. The key technological parameters at autoclave formation CFRP temperature, time and pressure are. Varying the specified parameters in the course of cure (formation) it is possible to change value of the contents binding in cure material that influences on physic-mechanical properties of material.

For assessment of properties final product it is necessary to know not only the contents binding in prepreg, but also ratio of its basic components (matrix and filler) in the ready material. Control of parameters by production of products is integral and very important part of technological process, and definition mass (or volume) contents binding in CFRP is important indicator qualities of products.

For contents assessment binding in CFRP apply burning out method on air in accordance with GOST 28006–88.

Carrying out a study of the possibility of using the thermo-oxidative destruction method to determine the resin content in carbon fiber reinforced plastic based on various types of carbon fillers and highly deformable modified melt resin. A features of the resinis a high content of thermoplastic: up to 25 wt. %.

It was found that thermo-oxidative destruction in air makes it possible to accurately de

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7.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-67-74
УДК 678.7
Tkachuk A.I., Zagora A.G., Donetskiy K.I., Evdokimov A.A.
POLYMERIC MATRIXES FOR COMPOSITE MATERIALS USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF QUICKLY BUILT BRIDGE STRUCTURES

The main physico-chemical, thermomechanical and strength characteristics of the epoxy-vinyl-ester polymeric matrixes of the VSV-41 and VSV-43 brands developed at FSUE «VIAM» are considered. It is established that the time of technological viability of these polymeric matrixes in the temperature range of 20–25 °C is 120–130 minutes, which allows them to be processed into products made of polymer composite materials (PCM) of sufficiently large dimensions. Infusion polymeric matrixes of the VSV-41 and VSV-43 brands have similar bending strength indicators, but PCM based on the VSV-43 polymeric matrix have a wider range of operating temperatures. Based on these polymeric matrixes, carbon fiber of the VKU-51 brand, as well as fiberglass of the VPS-58 and VPS-60R brands were developed and certified. In addition, they are used in the manufacture of sheet pilings and supports of arched elements, as well as profiled flooring of structures of a quickly built arch bridge made of composite materials, built in the settlement of Yazykovo in the Ulyanovsk region.

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8.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-75-86
УДК 629.7.023.224
Khmeleva K.M., Kozlov I.A., Nikitin Ya.Yu., Nikiforov A.A.
MODERN TRENDS OF PROTECTIVE GALVANIC COATINGS WORKING AT HIGH TEMPERATURES (review)

The development of protective coatings that are efficient at high operating temperatures is one of the most important topics related to the aviation industry and the production of stationary gas turbines. For protection against high-temperature corrosion of heat-resistant nickel alloys, in addition to the traditionally used aluminizing, it is promising to use heat-resistant protective coatings applied by the galvanic method. In particular, the application of an aluminum-modified Ni–Co electroplating coating promotes the formation of protective scale, thereby reducing the diffusion rate of sulfur by half during the sulfide corrosion process.

One of the directions in the development of protective galvanic coatings is their modification with nanoparticles, which promote the formation of localized microcells on the surface of galvanic coatings, which impede the propagation of corrosion processes throughout the entire volume of the coating. Modification with SiC, Fe2O3, Al2O3, Cr, Al particles makes it possible to improve the operational properties (wear resistance, heat resistance, corrosion resistance) of the deposited coatings.

With long service lives, degradation of protective coatings is possible due to the depletion of the aluminized layer due to its oxidation. A promising direction in the field of protection of heat-resistant alloys is to limit the mutual diffusion of elements included in the substrate-coating system, which occurs during the operation of parts at elevated temperatures. This is achieved by applying a galvanic nickel sublayer doped with rhenium, which creates a barrier layer that prevents diffusion processes in the system, thereby increasing the resistance of parts to sulfide oxide oxidation.

In addition to high-temperature nickel alloys, γ-TiAl system a

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9.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-87-95
УДК 678.026
Kuznetsova V.A., Shapovalov G.G., Marchenko S.A., Kovrizhkina N.A., Silaeva A.A.
PAINT COATINGS ON THE BASIS OF EPOXY AND ACRYLIC DIPHASIC POLYMERIC SYSTEM FOR COLORING OF ELEMENTS OF CABIN OF PILOTS AND DASHBOARDS

Development of aviation engineering at the present stage makes special demands to quality and appearance of the paint coatings applied to protection and decorative furnish of elements of cabin and dashboards. Offered work is devoted to studying of properties of the decorative matte paint coatings received using epoxy and acrylic of film-forming, cured by hardener of amine type. For studying of properties of the coverings received on the basis of diphasic polymeric systems, samples with the different maintenance of filler have been made. For ensuring high adhesion the made samples of opaque enamels put on the grounded samples of alloy Д16АТ of An.ox.n.chr.

Influence of the maintenance of filler on adhesion, physicomechanical properties, and also shine of the coverings made on the basis of diphasic epoxy and acrylic polymeric system, cured by organic silicon ammine and low-molecular polyamide in initial condition and after impact of thermodifference on the cycle LI-14 (-60…+100) °C is investigated. It is shown that the increase in the maintenance of fillers in epoxy and acrylic film-forming, irrespective of applied hardener gives to monotonous decrease in elasticity at stretching and shine of coverings. Properties of systems of coverings on the basis of first coat VG-28 and the opaque enamels received using epoxy and acrylic of film-forming in initial condition and after artificial aging are investigated.

Hardness and scratch resistance of systems of coverings which have been developed on the basis of matte coatings in comparison with serial system of coverings on the basis of first coat AK-070 and opaque HS-5245 enamel are investigated. The optimum maintenance of fillers in epoxy and acrylic polymeric matrix at which the highest level of operational properties of systems of coverings on the basis of epoxy and acrylic polymeric matrix is reached is

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10.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-96-107
УДК 629.7.023.222
Kovrizhkina N.A., Kuznetsova V.A., Silaeva A.A., Emelyanov V.V.
ALTERNATIVES TO CHROMATE PIGMENTS (review)

Today the problem of replacement of chromate pigments connections less toxic, not conceding to them on anticorrosive firmness is especially actual.

Chromates as active inhibitors are quite successfully replaced with other components, such as, for example, compounds of cerium and molybdenum. As new polymeric systems conductive polymers are developed for protection against corrosion. Among the most perspective candidates investigated as active inhibitors: compounds of cerium, molibdates, vanadates and phosphates.

It is possible to carry inhibitors based on cerium salts to promising substitutes of chromates. The mixes of pigments containing oxalates and acetates of cerium, and also cerium molibdates provide good anticorrosive properties of coatings.

As alternative to chrome (VI)-containing pigments phosphates often are considered. Various researches confirm that phosphates possess high efficiency of protection against corrosion.

As corrosion inhibitors as a part of coating materials also can act phosphonates, and also other compounds of phosphorus, including organic that is confirmed by a number of researches.

The perspective direction in the field of pigments and fillers is receiving and the subsequent application of core pigments, in particular, on the basis of polyaniline. Such pigments are potentially capable to show active anticorrosive protection at the expense of existence of a layer of carrying-out polymer on a surface.

As possible alternative to chromatess some compounds of transitional metals, namely their mixes also can act. For example, in recent years there were the works showing that one of ways of decrease in toxicity of anticorrosive first coats is replacement of chromate pigments by compounds of mangane

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11.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-108-115
УДК 620.179
Boychuk A.S., Dikov I.A., Generalov A.S., Yakovleva S.I.
THE FEATURES OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC SOLID LAMINATE SAMPLES DURING LOW-CYCLIC FATIGUE TESTING

Non-destructive inspection of materials quality is one of the most important tasks at new materials and technologies development. It is known that during FRP manufacturing the emergence of some discontinuities can be. Porosity, insufficient impregnation, delamination, inclusions are the most common internal defects of FRP. These defects may be caused by incorrect vacuum bag assembling, wrong molding regimes, failure in molding process. During low-cyclic fatigue testing of FRP samples the generation and accumulation of micro cracks are also possible. Accumulation of micro cracks in the samples leads to change of their acoustic properties concerning initial condition. Attenuation of ultrasonic echo extending through the sample usually increases. In this case there is a possibility not to detect large defect such as delamination against the increased attenuation while the flaw detector was set up with test specimen. Research results which help to determine that for ultrasonic pulse-echo inspection during cyclic mechanical testing and after the special correction of flaw detector’s gain and inspection’s sensitivity concerning back-wall echo decreasing in compare with testing specimen is necessary are given in this article. The correction of inspection’s sensitivity must guarantee FBH detection in samples with signal-to-noise ratio more than 8 dB.

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12.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-12-116-124
УДК 678.84
Beljaev А.А., Bespalova E.E.
FEATURES OF MEASUREMENT OF REFLECTIVE FACTOR IN SUPERHIGH FREQUENCIES BY MEANS OF ANALYZERS OF CHAINS

In this article features of measurement of factors of reflection of radio absorbing materials by means of analyzers of chains at super-high frequencies are described. Results of measurements of one of standard radio absorbing materials with use of the analyzer of chains are given and comparison with results of measurements by means of a measuring instrument of KSVN panoramic is carried out them. As a standard radio absorbing material the material on the basis of rubber with high filling by a powder of carbonyl iron was taken. Measurements of five samples by three ways were carried out: with use of a measuring instrument of KSVN panoramic P2-61metod of direct measurement, with use of the analyzer of chains of the PNA-L type by a method of direct measurement and with use of the analyzer of chains of the PNA-L type by a method providing signal isolation, reflected from a sample, from the sum of the signals reflected, respectively, from a sample and from an antenna and feeding path, given to раскрыву the horn antenna. At measurements with use of a measuring instrument of KSVN panoramic P2-61 comparison of factors of reflection of the horn antenna from the metal screen and from a sample of the radio absorbing material, settling down directly on раскрыве the horn antenna is carried out. At straight lines of measurement of factor of reflection with use of analyzers of chains comparison of factors of reflection of the horn antenna from the metal screen and from a sample of the radio absorbing material, settling down directly on раскрыве the horn antenna is carried out. From the received results it is visible that measurements of factor of reflection with use of a measuring instrument of KSVN panoramic P2-61 a method of direct measurement and with use of the analyzer of chains by a method providing signal isolation, practically coincide among themselves and with standard characteristics of the studied sample of a radio absorbing material and a

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