Articles

 


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1.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-3-10
УДК 669.295
Kablov E.N., Nochovnaya N.A., Shiryaev A.A., Davydova E.A.
INVESTIGATION OF STRUCTURAL AND PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN METASTABLE β-TITANIUM ALLOYS AND EFFECT OF COOLING RATE FROM HOMOGENIZATION TEMPERATURE ON STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF VT47 ALLOY. Part 1

The problematic issues of metal science and heat treatment of metastable β-titanium alloys containing metastable β-phase have been analyzed, and the alloying ranges have been determined for the alloys being closest to each other in structural and phase transformations.

The analysis of scientific and technical literature sources has been accomplished in the field of structural and phase transformations occurring in metastable β-titanium alloys of a selected degree of alloying upon cooling from homogenization temperatures in the β phase area. One of the main parameters which determine the behavior of metastable β-titanium alloys upon cooling is the critical “self-quenching” rate – the minimal cooling rate which ensures the formation of a metastable structural phase state (the β phase). The critical rate of “self-quenching” is significantly interrelated with the alloy chemical composition, alloying features, and structural and phase transformations which occur.

It has been shown that a large number of factors influence the processes which take place during cooling, as well as the structure and properties of metastable β-titanium alloys with a selected degree of alloying after isothermal exposures. Features of structural and phase transformations, including the tendency of intermediate phases (ω and β′) precipitation, and features of metastable β solid solution decomposition mechanism with the secondary α phase particles precipitation, as well as the degree and completeness of recrystallization processes during homogenization may have a significant influence on the structure and mechanical properties in both quenched and thermally hardened states.

It has been shown that the process of the metastable β phase decomposition into the &am

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2.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-11-18
УДК 669.018.28
Duyunova V.A., Leonov A.A., Trapeznikov A.V.
METHOD OF INCREASING TIGHTNESS AND HARDENING OF CAST CORROSION-RESISTANT WELDED MAGNALIAS

The tightness depends on alloy nature and structure. Cast magnalias are relating to Al‑Mg alloys group, with a wide crystallization interval. Castings have low tightness under conditions of low crystallization rate at pouring to green-sand and cold-box molds. It connected with crystallization features. Finely dispersed gas-shrink porosity creation which scattered throughout the entire casting is possible in cast magnalias in conditions of low rate crystallization. Individual pores can communicate with each other, forming through defects that cause castings leakage even at low pressures.

Studies have shown that surface sandblasting with electrocorundum sand improves the surface finish of castings and practically does not affect the mechanical properties and tightness of cast parts.

In order to eliminate end-to-end defects, the influence of complex processing on the structure was studied: abrasive blasting, including surface hardening with an electric corundum, and hot isostatic pressing. Surface deformation processing of castings on both sides, followed by hot isostatic pressing, leads to microplastic deformation of the casting material in the voids and eliminates defects in the form of pores and shells.

Based on the studies, it was found that surface treatment in combination with hot isostatic pressing is a very promising component of the technological process of manufacturing critical cast parts and welded structural elements with high strength and tightness. The use of integrated technological processing makes it possible to determine ways to further increase the range of castings from foundry magnalias and expand the scope of their application.

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3.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-19-28
УДК 667.621
Shitov R.O., Kitaeva N.S., Shiryakina Yu.M., Kurshev E.V.
RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF MODIFIERS OF VARIED NATURE ON THE THERMO-OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF A MODEL SILICONE BINDER

The literature data on the use of various modifiers as additives that increase heat resistance of polymer binders in an oxidizing environment are analyzed. Influence of the nature of modifiers – pyrogenic silicon dioxide (aerosil A-380), cristobalite, asbestos (processed for adhesives), wollastonite, iron oxide (III), cerium (IV) oxide on the thermo-oxidative stability of a model silicone binder, and their concentration patterns have been investigated. Microphase structure of modified samples with a cured matrix of a model silicone binder was evaluated.

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4.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-29-37
УДК 339.13.017:678.8
Doriomedov M.S.
RUSSIAN AND WORLD MARKET OF POLYMER COMPOSITES (review)

The article is devoted to monitoring the market of polymer composite materials (PCM) in Russia and the world on the basis of available sources of information and own research by the expert group of the technological platform «New Polymer Composite Materials and Technologies».

The first part of the article presents data on the market volumes of polymer composites in the world. From the data of international consulting agencies, the global PCM market in 2019 reached a volume of $ 90.6–93.6 billion and about 12.0 million tons in physical terms. The Asian region accounts for the largest share of the global composites market - 48% in physical terms and 43% in value terms. At the same time, only China accounts for 28% of the world market in physical terms. The market of S. America occupies 26% of the world market in kind and 20% in value terms. The main consumed composite is fiberglass (thermoset materials reinforced with fiberglass).

The second part of the article presents data on the volumes of the Russian market of polymer composites. In 2019, the PCM market reached 57.9 billion rubles. in value terms, which is 2.5 times the period of 2013, and in kind more than 70 thousand tons. Composites are actively used in automotive and agricultural machinery, railway engineering, the construction sector, etc.

In the third and final part of the article, the authors cite data on composite materials developed at VIAM for the energy, construction and aviation industries.

Based on market analysis, the authors conclude that in recent years there has been a significant increase in PCM production and consumption, both in Russia and in the world. In particular, data on the Russian PCM market indicate a serious increase in the consumption of materials in the construction sector and transport en

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5.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-38-44
УДК 678.8
Kolobkov A.S.
POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR VARIOUS AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES (review)

Over the past 20 years, in connection with increasing requirements for aviation equipment, in terms of safety, weight efficiency and import substitution, work has been carried out at FSUE VIAM aimed at developing and improving the internal research and production capacity.

The result of this activity is new technologies for producing polymer composite materials that meet modern requirements in the production of aviation equipment. A large number of new polymer composite materials have been developed using various molten binders and reinforcing fillers. New polymer composite materials include fiberglass, carbon fiber and organoplastics based on molten polymer binders, with a high uniformity of distribution over the area, which allows for uniform mechanical properties over the entire area of the product. These materials can be used in various elements of aviation equipment, from radio-transparent aircraft fairings to highly loaded power structures of aircraft engines, as well as ballistic resistant panels for aircraft and helicopter equipment.

It is worth noting that the new materials described in this article include not only prepregs, but also others that are processed using various technologies, pressing, vacuum infusion and autoclave molding. Taking into account the trends to reduce energy consumption for forming PCM parts, prepregs for vacuum-furnace forming have also been developed, which can be processed without an autoclave.

It is also worth noting that due to the increased interest in high-temperature polymer composite materials, new materials include developments with operating temperatures from 200 to 300oC. These materials are resistant to burnout, do not support Gorenje and at the same time have high strength indicators.

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6.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-45-61
УДК 669.018.95
Batienkov R.V., Burkovskaya N.P., Bolshakova A.N., Khudnev A.A.
HIGH TEMPERATURE METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE MATERIALS (review)

A review of achievements and new research in the field of high-temperature metal matrix composite materials their structure, properties and technologies was described in this work. The classification of composite materials by the reinforcement mechanism was considered. The optimal amount of reinforcement phase is from 15 to 75% in fiber-reinforced and from 2 to 4% in dispersion-strengthened metal matrix composite materials. The unique properties of metal matrix composite materials are determined by their special structure. The matrix components for high-temperature composite materials are metals such as nickel, iron, cobalt, and at temperatures above 16000C molybdenum, tungsten, niobium, tantalum and etc. Initially mechanically hardened nickel-based alloys were developed for military jet engines with the possible prospect of using these materials in the aerospace industry. However, these materials are widely used in other industries; for example, they are used in heat treatment equipment. Currently composite materials based on refractory metals and their compounds are used for the special equipment working at high temperatures and voltages. The alloys TZC and TZM are used for the manufacture nozzles, turbine blades, honeycomb structures and various fastening parts. The most stable dispersion-strengthening particles in refractory metals are zirconium and hafnium oxides and aluminum nitride. Casting and powder metallurgy use for obtain metal matrix composite materials, but powder metallurgy is used more often. The method of spark plasma sintering is used for compact difficultly deformed compositions. Additive technologies can be considered a new direction of obtaining metal matrix composite materials.

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7.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-62-71
УДК 665.939.5
Starkov A.I., Kutsevich K.E., Tyumeneva T.Y.
DEVELOPMENT OF ADHESIVE COMPOSITE MATERIAL BASED ON UMT49S-12K-EP ALTERNATIVE CARBON FILLER AND VSK-14-3 ADHESIVE BINDER

All-Russian Research Institute of Aviation Materials (FSUE VIAM) developed and successfully introduced into production KMKU-3m.150.P14535 adhesive prepreg with tensile strength of at least 1400 MPa based on art. 14535 unidirectional carbon tape of plain weaving produced by Porcher Ind. (France) and VSK-14-3 solvent-free adhesive binder, which is used in the production process of complex, large-sized parts of the aircrafts by PJSC "Company Sukhoi".

Due to unavailability of HTS45 E23 12K carbon fiber supplies from Toho Tenax (Japan) to the Russian Federation, which are used as the basis for the production of art. 14535 carbon tape by Porcher Ind., it was necessary to replace them with alternative fibers of similar properties taking into account raw material and resource potential of the domestic market.

As part of the implementation of this task, FSUE “VIAM” conducted general qualification (certification) of VKU-30K.UMT49 brand carbon fiber from KMKU-3m.150.UMT49 adhesive prepregs based on domestic UMT49S-12K high-strength carbon fiber filler by UMATEX and VSK-14-3 adhesive binder, also defining its set of properties.

A production technology of KMKU-3m.150.UMT49 adhesive prepregs based on domestic UMT49S-12K-EP carbon fiber filler has been developed for Coatema BL-2800 unit with different VSK-14-3 binder content: (39±2)% for monolithic structures, (63±2)% for honeycomb structures.

In order to ensure the supply of KMKU-3m.150.UMT49 adhesive prepreg, amendment № 4 to TU 1-595-14-1304-2012 "KMKU-3m.150.R14535 and KMKU-3m.150.UMT49 adhesive prepregs" was developed.

It was established that the developed VKU-30K.UMT49 carbon fiber has the following properties: tensile strength at 20 °C, σв – not less tha

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8.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-72-80
УДК 677.024.5
Sidorina A.I., Safronov A.M.
DEVELOPMENT OF CARBON FABRICS WITH HIGH SURFACE DENSITY MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

This work demonstrates a principled approach to solving such an actual scientific and technological problem as expanding the range of woven reinforcing fillers for polymer composite materials on the example of the development of technology for manufacturing fabrics with high surface density of carbon fibers. At the initial stage of development, the filling parameters were determined for balanced twill fabric with a surface density of 385 g/m2 of the VTkU-6 brand, balanced plain fabric with surface density of 585 g/m2 of the VTkU-7 brand and the unidirectional plain fabric with surface density 290 g/m2 of the VTkU-3.290 brand. In the future, experimental batches of fabrics were obtained using calculated filling parameters and empirically determined manufacturing modes (tension of the warp and weft threads and loom speed), and their main properties were studied to meet the requirements for width, surface density, the number of warp and weft threads and their mass distribution. It is established that the parameters determined as a result of technical calculation and technological modes allow manufacturing these carbon fabrics with a high uniformity degree. Based on the data obtained, manufacturing technologies were developed and the production of high surface density fabrics made of carbon fibers was mastered on rapier loom. Carbon fabrics from the high surface density can be used as reinforcing fillers in the production of the constructional polymeric composite materials and for manufacture of composite equipment. The approach shown in the paper to the technical calculation of fabrics allows to develop manufacturing technologies for new brands of woven reinforcing fillers for polymeric composite materials and fabrics for industrial use with properties that meet the requirements of the consumers, and for use in the specific product.

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9.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-81-90
УДК 620.192.63
Demidov A.A., Kosarina E.I., Kourova N.V., Mikhailova N.A.
SENSITOMETER FOR BUILDING CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF X-RAY FILMS AND DETERMINING THE SENSITIVITY TO RADIATION AND GRADIENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH ISO 11699-1:2008 REQUIREMENTS

When translating the international ISO standards on radiation methods of non-destructive testing in the status of GOST ISO has arisen need of definition of class of radiographic film used at control. Definition of accessory of ispytuyemy film to certain class also should be carried out according to ISO 11699-1. The sensitometer allowing definitely to exhibit samples of radiographic films has been for this purpose developed and made and to receive sensitometric samples. Sensitometric samples use for creation of characteristic curves: dependences of optical density on radiation dose logarithm. On characteristic curve radiographic film it is possible to define its such properties, as gradient at the optical density of 2 B and 4 B, sensitivity of radiographic film to radiation, the optical density of veil. The received sensitometric samples have on eight fields with different optical density. Change of optical density on sensitometric samples is caused by the different duration of exhibiting, at the expense of the different length of windows of the sensitometer. Thus the bunch of the radiation exhibiting samples of films has the same energy spectrum, and duration of exhibiting of different sites of radiographic film represents logarithmic dependence. ISO 11699-1 gives information on limiting values of the listed properties and their size are distributed on classes. By means of the developed sensitometer have been exhibited sample of radiographic films of D4; D5; D7 of AGFA firm which on the test results, carried out by the Berlin institute of certification of materials (BAM) are carried to the classes C3; С4; С5, respectively. Results of testing of these films with use of the developed sensitometer have confirmed the classification established by BAM. The made experiments allow to make the conclusion that the developed sensitometer can be used for testing of radiographic films according to ISO 11699-1.

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10.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-91-100
УДК 620.193.8
Varchenko E.A., Vetrova E.Yu.
RESEARCH OF THE BIOLOGICAL AND CORROSION RESISTANCE OF SAMPLES OF ALUMINUM ALLOY AFTER NATURAL TESTS IN THE GELENJIK BAY. Part 1

It is well known that fouling degrades the performance of ships (speed decreases, the power of the power plant increases to maintain the original speed), ship and ocean instruments and equipment that have undergone fouling prematurely fail or give incorrect readings. However, it is obvious that the fouling phenomenon manifests itself not only as an external surface factor, significantly reducing the speed of the vessel and increasing fuel consumption, but, first of all, as an internal depth factor, contributing to the multiple intensification of corrosion processes on the surface of the vessel skin and hydraulic structures , in turn, leading to an active decrease in the fatigue strength of the structure.

It is impossible to objectively interpret the results of corrosion tests in such a multifactor system as the sea, considering individually the traditional factors of a physicochemical nature and not taking into account the significant contribution that the biofactor makes to corrosion processes. But at present, there are practically no simple and reliable experimental methods to isolate the biological component from the general corrosion background. As a result, the results of various experiments cannot be unambiguously interpreted and cannot be compared.

The work devoted to the study of the influence of biological and physicochemical factors of sea water on the change in the properties of metallic and nonmetallic materials in the coastal area of the Gelendzhik Bay (Black Sea) focuses on the qualitative and quantitative assessment of biofouling materials after seasonal (summer) exposure at 6 monitoring points of the coastal zone of Gelendzhik. The development process of fouling communities is analyzed depending on the hydrological (salinity, temperature) and hydrochemical (pH, ionic composition) parameters of sea water at the test points.

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11.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-101-117
УДК 614.841.345:629.7.042.2
Barbotko S.L., Volnyj O.S., Bochenkov M.M.
ANALYSIS OF THE US FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION PROPOSALS FOR THE REFORM OF AVIATION STANDARDS REGARDING THE FIRE SAFETY OF USED MATERIALS (review)

The increase in the use of polymeric materials in aircraft construction and the change in the nature of cargo carried lead to a change in the fire hazard in airplanes and helicopters. The most significant changes in the level of fire hazard relate to large transport aircraft.

One of the causes of emergencies or the consequences that arise when they occur is a fire. The development of a fire and its possible danger substantially depend on the place of its occurrence and development conditions. In this regard, various materials (components, parts, structural elements) must be presented with different test methods that simulate certain combustion conditions, and acceptable values of regulated criteria for assessing the fire hazard characteristics.

The benefits of improving passenger safety cannot be quantified, but any increase in fire safety of the materials used will increase passenger safety by reducing the likelihood of death due to a fire. Therefore, the requirements for improving the fire safety of the materials used should increase as new, more advanced materials become available. In this regard, constant work is needed to improve regulatory documents.

The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration has drafted amendments to aviation standards and supporting advisory circulars, as well as a new handbook for fire testing of aviation materials. These proposed documents significantly change the mode of making fire safety requirements, test methods, defined characteristics, and conformity assessment criteria. This paper reviews proposed changes.

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12.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2020-0-67-118-128
УДК 539.24
Valevin E.O., Startsev V.O., Zelenina I.V.
THERMAL AGING, SURFACE DEGRADATION AND WATER TRANSFER IN CARBON FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC VKU-38TR

The paper presents studies of the effect of prolonged exposure to elevated operating temperatures on the surface of heat-resistant carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP) and the change in its moisture absorption after thermal aging. As the object of study, we selected the VKU-38TR heat-resistant structural carbon fiber based on the BCN-31 phthalonitrile binder and the UT-900I equal-strength fabric. Thermal aging of CRFP samples was carried out at temperatures of 300±2 °C in an air atmosphere for 1000 hours and 330±2 °C for 200 hours. An analysis was made of the surface images obtained using a laser scanning microscope, and surface profiles and the distribution of the heights of the inhomogeneities of the VKU-38TR CRFP samples were constructed in the initial state and after heat aging at a temperature of 300 °C for 1000 hours and at a temperature of 330 °C for 200 hours. The results of these profilometric studies show that the surface layer of UP after 200 hours of thermal aging at 330 °C is degrading to a greater extent than after 1000 hours of exposure at 300 °C. The height of the surface topography increases from 1,2 μm to 3,7 μm and 7,3 μm, respectively. This confirms the assumption that the change in the mass of the CRFP is due to the ablation of the polymer matrix in the surface layer during thermo-oxidative degradation.

Further, to assess changes in moisture transfer in aged VKU-38TR samples, thermal humidity tests were carried out in the initial state and after heat aging, and the kinetics of the relative change in the mass of the samples was constructed. After a thermal resource has been developed at 300 °С for 1000 h and subsequent wetting, the equilibrium moisture absorption value increases by more than 2 times in comparison with samples not subjected to thermal aging. Thus, with an increase in moisture&

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