Articles

 


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1.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-3-15
УДК 669.017.165:669.018.44
Petrushin N.V., Visik E.M., Elyutin E.S.
IMPROVEMENT OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF CASTABLE NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY WITH LOW DENSITY. Part 1

The tendencies of advancement of nickel-based superalloys for casting turbine blades of aircraft engines are considered. Using the method of mathematical planning of the experiment, quantitative regularities of the influence of alloying elements W, Mo, Cr, Co, Ti, Nb, Hf and C on the durability at 975 °C and stress 200 MPa of castable polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys of the VZhL12U type with low density were established. Concentration regression models of the durability of alloys of this type are developed. It was found that the alloying elements W and Mo in the studied concentration range have a positive effect on the durability of alloys of the VZhL12U type. With an increase in the content of Ti, Nb, and C within the studied concentration range, the durability of alloys decreases, an increase in the Hf content leads to an increase in the durability of alloys of this type. The positive effect of W on durability decreases with an increased Cr content in the alloy. When the Cr content in the alloy is more than 8 wt. % the durability is decreases.

The effect of Co on the durability of VZhL12U alloys is ambiguous. Alloys show the minimum values of durability with a Co content equal to 11–12 wt. % At lower or higher concentrations of Co, the durability of the alloys increases.

It is shown that a decrease in the durability of alloys of the VZhL12U type with an increase in the content of Ti and Nb is associated with the formation of a significant amount of the γ+γ' eutectic.

It has been established that the alloying of VZhL12U alloys with hafnium increases the γ'-solvus temperature Tsolv to 1258 °С, decreases the solidus temperature TS to 1260 °С and the temperature of the onset of crystallization Tcr to 1320 °С, and doe

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2.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-16-27
УДК 621.762:669.295
Vasilev A.I., Putyrskiy S.V., Korotchenko A.Yu., Anisimova A.Yu.
MIM TECHNOLOGY AS A METHOD OF MANUFACTURING PRECISION PARTS FROM METAL-POWDER COMPOSITIONS, INCLUDING TITANIUM ALLOYS (review)

The trends in the development of technologies for the manufacture of metal products presented in the article determine future directions in the production of products of maximum complexity. Over the past 30 years, new technologies for the manufacture of precision parts using metal powders have gained significant weight in many technical industries: electronics, machine tools, aerospace, medicine, and motor transport. In the case of manufacturing parts of complex geometric shapes, small dimensions and mass, foreign companies have introduced technologies for injection molding of metal-powder compositions – Metal injection molding or MIM technology. In comparison with the existing technologies of casting and powder metallurgy, MIM technology provides several times reduction in the cost of manufacturing parts of complex geometric shapes. The prospects and competitiveness of MIM technologies are determined by such advantages as: the ability to manufacture parts of complex shapes; no additional operations (for example, machining) to obtain a finished part and, as a result, a high material utilization rate – from 96 to 99%; the ability to manufacture parts with a minimum wall section thickness of 0.5 mm; high productivity of the process and the possibility of full automation of production.

 In the manufacture of parts using the MIM technology, compact technological equipment is used; there is no need for a melting section in production. The main prerequisites for the development of MIM technology in modern machine building were the expansion of the range of powders and binders, equipment for controlling their quality, methods for obtaining powders of spherical shape and controlled size, as well as equipment for producing mixtures of powders with a binder. The use of such technologies made it possible to obtain high-quality raw materials for MIM technology &

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3.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-28-43
УДК 669.017.165
Nochovnaya N.A., Ivanov V.I., Avilochev L.Yu.
INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND AlxTi – ARE PROMISING MATERIAL FOR HIGH ELEVATED TEMPERATURES (review) Part 1. The crystaline structure and properties of the intermetallic compound Al2Ti

Various alloys belonging to the Ti–Al system have been studied in the area of intermetallic phases existence. Phase diagrams of the Ti–Al system are presented. The main ordered compounds of this system are shown: the γ-TiAl phase, the Al2Ti phase (in the form of the h-and r-phases), the metastable Al5Ti3 phase, and the Al3Ti phase, the two latter possessing single- and long-period superstructures.

Among the intermetallic compounds of the Ti–Al system gamma alloys based on the γ-TiAl phase are currently the most studied and have found practical applications. As a result of the accomplished analysis of scientific and technical sources there has been identified an area in the Ti–Al system containing potentially promising titanium aluminides which possess lower density and higher Young’s modulus compared to those of gamma alloys, as well as good heat-resistance at temperatures up to 1000 °C – Al2Ti (γ=3580 kg/m3, Е=208 GPa) and Al3Ti (γ=3360 kg/m3, Е=195 GPa).

The present literature review concerns crystal lattices, structures, and homogeneity areas for intermetallic compounds of the Ti–(50–75)Al diagram, as well as thermo-physical and mechanical properties thereof.

It has been established that the metastable Al5Ti3 phase has a wide range of concentrations and is table up to a temperature of 880 °С, while the high-temperature h-Al2Ti phase is stable up to 1215 °С, and the low-temperature r-Al2Ti phase is stable at normal temperature. At temperatures above 1215 °С the h-Al2Ti phase transforms into the T

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4.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-44-57
УДК 678.8
Kondrashov S.V., Pykhtin A.A., Larionov S.A.
FDM-PRINTED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS (review)

The development of additive technologies (AT) and the industrial «Internet of things» is one of the key factors that will determine the transition to the concept of «Industry 4.0». In particular, the «Internet of Things» presupposes the presence of connections between various devices and the center in which these devices will be produced as needed (resource development, the impact of operational loads exceeding the design ones). To ensure such communication, the devices or parts that make up it must have built-in sensors that will monitor the parameters of the functional state and transmit the necessary information.

This approach should be based on the development of completely new «smart» materials that combine a high level of physical and mechanical properties with a set of functional characteristics that were not previously characteristic of them.

The paper provides an overview of the research results in the field of obtaining functional materials by layer-by-layer fusion of filled polymers (FDM printing). It is shown that the use of FDM printing of polymer composites with various functional fillers makes it possible to impart electro-thermal-conductive and magnetic properties to polymer materials. By varying the composition of the polymer matrix, the type of filler, the electrical conductivity of the composite can be changed from 10-2 to 1.4·105 C/cm, the thermal conductivity can be increased to 0.9 W/mK⁰, and magnetoplastics can be produced. However, to obtain a high level of functional properties, it is required to use polymer matrices with a filling degree of 5-50%.

The combination of fundamental knowledge accumulated in the study of the structure and properties of polymer matrices filled with particles and fibers of nano- and micro-size with&

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5.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-58-67
УДК 665.939
Isaev A.Yu., Rubtsova E.V., Kotova E.V., Sutyagin M.N.
RESEARCH OF PROPERTIES OF GLUES AND GLUE BINDING, MADE WITH USE OF MODERN DOMESTIC COMPONENT BASE

Broad application in the aviation industry is found by glue of cold curing VK-9, and also film VK-36 glue and its updatings.

Working off of technological parameters of manufacturing of glues of the VK-9 brands is carried out and

R serial equipment of VIAM Federal State Unitary Enterprise. In the course of work parameters of technological process of preparation of initial components, and also technological process of combination of components when manufacturing glues varied.

On the equipment of VIAM Federal State Unitary Enterprise works on working off and choice of technological parameters of manufacturing of the glue masses intended for manufacturing of glue films of the brands VK-36, VK-36P, VK-36rt.140 and VK-36rt.170 are carried out and the technological instruction on their manufacturing is made.

Properties of glued joints of the D16AT aluminum alloy made using VK-9 glue with use of components from different suppliers, at temperatures of testing of 20, 80 and 125 °C in initial condition completely correspond to technical requirements of TU 1-595-14-842-2009. Glued joints maintain influence of modes of thermoageing at 200 °C – 500 h and 250 °C during 5 h with preservation of durability of glued joints as at temperature of 20 °C, and 200 °C and 250 °C.

Glue masses on the serial equipment of VIAM Federal State Unitary Enterprise are made and with their use experimental batches of film glues VK-36, VK-36P, VK-36rt.140 are received,

R Glue masses and film glues according to the characteristics completely correspond to TU 1-595-389-96 (VK-36 and VK-36P) and TU 1-595-14-486-2013 (VK-36RT.140 and VK-36RT.170).

The wide range glue binding which production

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6.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-68-77
УДК 669.018.95
Serpova V.M., Sidorov D.V., Nyafkin A.N., Kurbatkina E.I.
HYBRID METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES BASED ON ALUMINUM ALLOYS (review)

The article provides an overview of foreign scientific and technical literature in the field of hybrid metal matrix composites (MCM) based on aluminum alloys. The paper presents hybrid MМСs based on aluminum alloys with reinforcing components. The main methods for the manufacture of hybrid MMCs based on an aluminum alloy are liquid-phase: impregnation under pressure, casting with stirring, solid-phase: methods of powder metallurgy. Also methods of additive technology are described in the literature.

The most common aluminum alloys used for the manufacture of hybrid MMCs are alloys of grades 359, 1060, 2024, 2124, 6061, 6351, 7075. The following components and their mixtures are used for their reinforcement: silicon carbide with powders: titanium dioxide, boron carbide, nitride silicon, aluminum oxide; with metal particles: titanium, chromium. The use of silicon carbide whiskers, short fibers of aluminum oxide, nitilone fibers, and graphite particles is also noted.

The following systems of hybrid MMCs are considered: Al/TiO2–SiC, Al/SiC–B4C, Al/NiTif–SiCp, Al/SiCp–Crp, Al/SiС–Ti, Al/SiC–Si3N4, Al/SiCw–SiCp, Al/SiCw–SiCp, Al/SiCp–Gr, Al/Al2O3–C.

Data are presented on the effect of the volume or mass percentage of reinforcing components in hybrid MMCs on mechanical, thermophysical, tribological properties: tensile strength, bending, elongation, hardness, thermal conductivity, wear and coefficient of friction. Also provides information on the study of damping ability.

It is shown, that the combination of various types of reinforcing components makes it possible to obtain h

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7.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-78-86
УДК 678.8
Sorokin A.E., Sagomonova V.A., Petrova A.P., Solovyanchik L.V.
MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES OF POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS ON THERMOPLASTICS (review)

In comparison with thermosetting materials, the use of thermoplastic binders can increase the resistance to shock loads, dust and rain erosion, and reduce the risk of corrosion. toxicity and fire hazard, solve the issues of repair of defects made during the manufacture of the product, disposal of decommissioned products, etc.

However, the processing of thermoplastics requires the development of different technologies, which is associated with higher viscosity of melts and solutions, high processing temperatures, low adhesive ability and poor solubility. Of the existing methods for obtaining KTM, the most high-quality impregnation of the filler with a binder and the highest level of mechanical properties of the material provide mortar and fiber technology. It is also advisable to process composite from semi-finished products, since this technology eliminates the need to have chemical sites for the preparation of binders, impregnation of the filler and pressing of sheets to obtain the material required for this production thickness.

The most promising and less energy-intensive technologies for producing prepregs are considered to be electron-ion and molten (coating). Thus, the use of film technology for producing prepregs based on fiberglass T15(p)-76 and polysulfone PSF-150 allows produce fiberglass with a higher strength characteristics.

It is worth noting that when selecting a method of processing a KTM you need to consider design features of the product, the particular properties and technological capabilities processing the selected polymer, the conditions of operation and requirements, as well as economic factors.

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8.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-87-98
УДК 678.8
Timoshkov P.N., Goncharov V.A., Grigoreva L.N., Usacheva M.N., Khrulkov A.V.
ROBOTIC LAYING OUT OF PREPREGS AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO TECHNOLOGY TO ATL AND AFP (review)

With the growing use of composite materials, the automated production of parts using prepreg is of increasing interest for the creation of high-performance manufacturing. There are two main types of automation for prepreg stacking: automated strip stacking and strand stacking. However, both of these technologies are not always cost-effective for all types of parts, and manual labor is usually used to make complex parts with small production volumes. An alternative to these two dominant automation solutions is automated stacking using manipulators that grip the prepreg, transfer it to the tooling and remove the backing paper. This overview presents four different solutions for the automated placement of prepreg layers on flat surfaces that can be formed in the subsequent forming process, thus reducing system complexity. The solutions are designed for parts that today require manual layering of prepreg slabs due to technical constraints or cost considerations. These solutions have to cope with the problems caused by material properties such as the low stiffness and tackiness of the prepreg, and be able to handle a wide variety of different layer shapes. All four solutions are for prepreg which is on a rigid paper backing. The review aims to analyze and compare four solutions. It has been shown that the most versatile solution is a two-handed robot equipped with simple end grippers (manipulators). The two-handed solution allows control of prepreg gripping and placement movements that allow peel movements, which is an advantage when gripping material adhering to the manipulator's gripping surface.

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9.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-99-108
УДК 629.7.023
Schur P.A., Solovyanchik L.V., Kondrashov S.V.
PROMISING METHODS FOR PRODUCTION OF ELECTROCHROMIC DEVICES BASED ON NANOSTRUCTURED COATINGS (review)

Currently, the use of electrochromic devices that change their optical characteristics in the composition of glazing is of great interest in various fields of industry: construction, auto and aircraft construction. The main purpose of electrochromic glazing of aircraft and cars is to increase the comfort of passengers by reducing the intensity of the passage of sunlight. The use of electrochromic glass in the structures of office and residential buildings allows you to reduce energy costs for air conditioning in summer and heating in winter.

From the point of view of energy efficiency of such devices, research aimed at developing methods for applying electrochromic materials and improving their characteristics is promising.

The paper presents a review of the literature on materials of nanostructured inorganic electrochromic coatings and methods for their preparation. The properties of metal oxides that are currently used in electrochromic devices are described. Thin coatings of NiO have a strong electrochromic effect, but they exhibit low reliability during long cycling. TiO2-based coatings

show good cycling during staining and return to their original state, but have a low color change rate and low efficiency compared to other metal oxides. WO3 coatings have the shortest staining time with varying voltage and the highest staining efficiency, long-lasting color memory effect, good contrast and cyclic stability, so they are the most promising material for use in electrochromic applications. devices. It is also shown that the creation of a nanostructured surface makes it possible to use the specific surface as efficiently as possible, as well as to increase the response rate of electrochromic devices.

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10.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-109-117
УДК 666.266.6
Malinina G.A., Solntsev St.S., Denisova V.S.
INFLUENS OF NON-OXID ADDITIVS ON THE PROPERTIES OF GLASS-CERAMIC COATING FOR PARTS MADE OF HEAT-RESISTANT ALLOYS (review)

At present, the rapid development of aviation and aerospace technology imposes new requirements on materials for engine construction. to protect parts made of heat-resistant alloys from high-temperature gas corrosion, glass-based coatings are applied using a slip-firing technology. It is necessary to consider the possibility of improving such coatings by introducing modifying additives. As such additives, substances with sufficient chemical and thermal resistance should be considered. As a rule, these are compounds of silicon, boron, rare and rare earth metals. Metal silicides are known for their ability to resist oxidation in an oxygen environment up to 1500 °C. The most well-studied is molybdenum disilicide (MoSi2). In addition, the introduction of more refractory tungsten in the composition along with molybdenum allows you to control such important properties as: the coefficient of thermal expansion, the characteristics of corrosion resistance at different temperatures, mechanical properties, etc. Zirconium, hafnium, and silicon borides are also widely used. Their use allows you to reduce the temperature of the coating formation, reduces the surface roughness, creates the effect of self-healing cracks. lanthanum compounds are characterized by high temperature and chemical resistance, low porosity. the most well-known glass-ceramic materials based on chromites and lanthanum aluminates. Also noteworthy are rare earth metal zirconates and hafnates that have a pyrochlore structure (for example, La2Zr2O7), since they are thermally stable up to the melting point (about 2300 °C) and have extremely low thermal conductivity and high corrosion resistance. Fluorites (for example, La2Ce2O7), perovskites (for example, SrZrO3), and complex spinels (for example, LaMgAl11O19) are considered equally promising materials. when th

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11.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-118-127
УДК 669.017
Nazarkin R.M., Platitsin A.V., Chabina E.B.
THE INFLUENCES OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY OF THE MAGNETRON TARGETS ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND PHASE COMPOSITION OF Zr–Y-BASED ALLOY

In this article the changes in the microstructure and phase composition of Zr–Y – based alloy (VTsM-1) samples for the manufacture of magnetron targets are discussed; it is used two different technologies for Zr–Y magnetron target manufacturing: on the basis of vacuum induction melting and on the basis of vacuum arc melting.

It has been shown that a switch in the manufacturing technology of VTsM-1 alloy – from the basis on vacuum induction melting to the basis on vacuum arc melting leads to the resulting changes:

a) the concentration of interstitial impurities, such us oxygen, in the Zr–Y alloy, from 3–4% to 1–2% (according to the X-Ray spectral microanalysis data).

b) the content of the α-Y-based phase on in the alloy were increased from 5–10% to 15–30%;

c) the a and c crystal lattice periods of the hexagonal phases were increased: both the main phase – α-Zr-based solid solution, and α-Y-based second phase – from the initial to the increased on 0.01–0.02 nm; the а crystal lattice period of the cubical phase (α-Y2O3 oxide) also was increased to 0.001 nm from initial.

c) there is a change in the nature of the distribution of particles of the second phase based on the α-Y solid solution in the microstructure of the Zr–Y alloy – from a similar dispersed particle distribution in the volume of the alloy – to the concentration of this phase along the grain boundaries.

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12.
dx.doi.org/ 10.18577/2307-6046-2021-0-3-128-136
УДК 620.1:678.8
Evdokimov A.A., Petrova A.P., Pavlovsky K.A., Gulyaev I.N.
THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATIC AGEING ON THE PROPERTIES OF PCM-BASED EPOXY RESIN SYSTEMS

The issues of PCM aging in natural conditions in various climatic zones are given great attention by both domestic and foreign scientists. It is noted that climatic factors have a significant impact on the PCM during long-term operation of products: temperature, relative factors negatively affect the strength characteristics of materials, which in turn reduces the resource of structures made with their use. To predict the service life of structures made with the use of PCM, it is necessary to study the resistance of materials to the effects of climatic factors mentioned above.

This article presents the results of studies of the properties of carbon fiber vku-51 and fiberglass vps-58 based on epoxivinyl ether binder, intended for the manufacture of load-bearing building structures of bridge structures, after a long exposure (for 5 years with intermediate removals after 1 year and 3 years) These materials Are used in different climatic zones. The exhibition included plates with dimensions of 300×300 mm and a thickness of 2.5 mm (carbon fiber) and 3.5 mm (fiberglass) without applying a protective paint coating.

When assessing the appearance of the exposed PCM plates, it can be stated that the degradation of the surface of materials is observed after 1 year of exposure, which is not critical, because even after 5 years of exposure, the preservation of properties is quite high.

VKU-51 carbon fiber and VPS-58 fiberglass showed a high level of preservation of physical and mechanical properties after prolonged exposure to operational factors (70–100% depending on the type of test), which indicates resistance to external influences in various climatic zones. At The same time, it should be noted that the most aggressive impact on carbon fiber has the industrial atmosphere of moscow. The most aggressive impact on fiberglass&

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13.
Autors information

Authors named

Position, academic degree

Affiliation

Leonid Yu. Avilochev

Leading Engineer

FSUE «All-Russian scientific research institute of aviation materials» SSC of RF;

e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Anna yu. Anisimova

Engineer

Anton I. Vasilev

Technician

Elena M. Visik

Head of Sector, Candidate of Sciences (Tech.)

Vitaliy A. Goncharov

Head of Laboratory

Liliya N. Grigoreva

Engineer

Ivan N. Gulyaev

Deputy Head of Laboratory for Science, Candidate of Sciences (Tech.)

Valentina S. Denisova

Head of Sector

Anton A. Evdokimov

Engineer

Evgeny S. Elyutin

Leading Engineer

Viktor I. Ivanov

Leading Researcher

Alexey Yu. Isaev

Head of Laboratory, Candidate of Sciences (Tech.)

Stanislav V. Kondrashov

Deputy Head of Laboratory for Science, Doctor of Sciences (Tech.)

Elena V. Kotova

Leading Engineer

Elena I. Kurbatkina

Head of Laboratory, Candidate of Sciences (Tech.)

Sergey A. Larionov

Engineer First Category

Galina A. Malinina

Engineer Second Category, Candidate of Sciences (Chem.)

Nadezhda A. Nochovnaya

Deputy Head of Laboratory, Doctor of Sciences (Tech.)

Andrey N. Nyafkin

Head of Sector

Roman M. Nazarkin

Leading Engineer

Konstantin A. Pavlovskiy

Deputy Head of Laboratory

Aleftina P. Petrova

Chief Researcher, Doctor of Sciences (Tech.)

Nikolay V. Petrushin

Chief Researcher, Doctor of Sciences (Tech.)

Alexander V. Platitsin

Leading Engineer, Candidate of Sciences (Tech.)

Stanislav V. Putyrskiy

Deputy Head of Laboratory

Alexander A. Pykhtin

Deputy Head of Laboratory, Candidate of Sciences (Tech.)

Ekaterina V. Rubtsova

Head of Sector

Valeria A. Sagomonova

Head of Laboratory

Viktoria M. Serpova

Leading Engineer

Denis V. Sidorov

Leading Researcher, Candidate of Sciences (Tech.)

Stanislav S. Solntsev

Counselor of Director General, Doctor of Sciences (Tech.)

Lyudmila V. Solovyanchik

Head of Sector

Anton E. Sorokin

Head of Scientific-Research Bureau, Candidate of Sciences (Tech.)

Maxim N. Sutyagin

Second Category Engineer

Pavel N. Timoshkov

Head of Scientific-Research Bureau

Maria N. Usacheva

Second Category Technician

Alexandr V. Hrulkov

Leading Engineer-technologist

Elena B. Chabina

Leading Researcher, Candidate of Sciences (Tech.)

Pavel A. Shchur

Junior Researcher

FSBEI of HPE «Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)»;

e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Andrey Yu. Korotchenko

Head of a Chair, Doctor of Sciences (Tech.)

FSBEI of HE «Bauman Moscow State Technical University (National Research University of Technology)»;

e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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